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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

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Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

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Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Liberal Arts & Sciences courses

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Similar to BCRS 208 but with additional work aimed at accelerating the student's progress to proficiency and widening understanding of cultural context. Prerequisite: BCRS 204 or 205. Open only to students admitted to the University Honors Program, or by permission of instructor. LEC
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This program consists of a six-week intensive language course in intermediate and advanced Croatian phonetics, conversation, and grammar, and is offered each summer in Croatia. In addition to the practical language work, there is a program of lectures on modern Croatian history, literature, and other cultural topics. Various excursions and tours bring the students into first-hand contact with the people, natural beauty and culture of Croatia. This program is a cooperative effort between the University of Kansas and faculty of the University of Zadar. LEC
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A practical Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian course involving the advanced study of the grammar, reading of texts on a variety of subjects, conversation and composition. Taught in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian. Designed for students who have had two or more years of Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language. Prerequisite: BCRS 208, or equivalent. LEC
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A practical Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian course involving the advanced study of the grammar, reading of texts on a variety of subjects, conversation and composition. Taught in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian. Designed for students who have had two and one-half or or more years of Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language. Prerequisite: BCRS 504, or equivalent. LEC
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Individually tailored readings and independent work in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language and culture. Prerequisite: Two years of Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, and consent of instructor. IND
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Intended for non-science majors. The basic concepts of biology at the cellular, organismal, and population levels of organization and their applications to humans and modern society. An honors section, BIOL 101, is offered for students with superior academic records. BIOL 100 and BIOL 102 (or BIOL 101 and BIOL 103, honors) satisfy the College natural science with laboratory requirement. Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 102 is recommended. LEC
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Intended for non-science majors with superior academic records. The basic concepts of biology at the cellular, organismal, and population levels of organization and their applications to humans and modern society. Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 103 is recommended. BIOL 101 and BIOL 103 satisfy the College natural science with laboratory requirement. Prerequisite: Membership in the College Honors Program or consent of instructor. LEC
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Intended for non-science majors. Exercises are designed to give the student hands-on experience with selected topics from the associated lecture course (BIOL 100). An honors laboratory (BIOL 103) is offered for students with superior academic records. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 100 is recommended. LAB
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Intended for non-science majors with superior academic records. Exercises are designed to give the students hands-on experience with selected topics from the associated lecture course (BIOL 101). Prerequisite: Membership in the College Honors Program or consent of instructor. Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 101 is recommended. LAB
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A course for students who are not science majors. Designed to acquaint students with some microbial activities which affect their lives. Includes the historical development of microbiology, the basic principles of microbial growth, disinfection, antibiotics, infection, and immunity; and some commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses of microorganisms. Emphasis is on infectious diseases. Not open to students with any credit in microbiology. May not be counted as a prerequisite for any other microbiology course. LEC
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An account of evolutionary thinking from classical to contemporary time. The emphasis is on mainstream developments (Darwinism, Mendelism, the Modern Synthesis, Cultural Ecology), but certain social issues will be examined (social Darwinism, creationism). LEC
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Students will learn about the global impact of insects on human concerns, both positive (pollination and decomposition) and negative (competition with humans for food, fiber, and shelter, and disease transmission) while developing an appreciation for the ways in which scientists work with real problems involving insects. The course will cover the overwhelming abundance and diversity of insects, and their life history, ecology, behavior, and physiology. This course is intended for both nonbiology and biology majors. Format: two lectures and one discussion section per week. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course for biology majors and students planning to take additional courses in biology. This course cover basic biochemistry, cell structure and function, molecular biology, genetics, physiology, and development of plants and animals. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. An honors section (BIOL 151) is offered for students with superior academic records. Concurrent or prior enrollment in CHEM 184 is recommended. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course for students with superior academic records who are biology majors or who plan to take additional courses in biology. This course covers basic biochemistry, cell structure and function, molecular biology, genetics, physiology, and development of plants and animals. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Concurrent or prior enrollment in CHEM 184 is recommended. Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program or permission of instructor. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course for biology majors and students who plan to take additional courses in biology. This course covers basic elements of plant and animal morphology and physiology, principles of evolution, organismal diversity and phylogeny, population biology, population genetics, ecology, and behavior. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. An honors section (BIOL 153) is offered for students with superior academic records. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course for students with superior academic records who are biology majors or planning to take additional courses in biology. This course covers basic elements of plant and animal morphology and physiology, principles of evolution, organismal diversity and phylogeny, population biology, population genetics, ecology, and behavior. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and membership in the University Honors Program or consent of instructor. LEC
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Introduction to bacteria and viruses. Topics include historical development of microbiology, bacterial structure and growth, enzymes and energy production, disinfection, antibacterial drugs, gene transfer, viral replication, infection and immunity, with emphasis on infectious diseases. Can be substituted for BIOL 201 as a prerequisite for other microbiology courses by consent of department. Not open to those with credit in BIOL 110, BIOL 201, BIOL 400, or BIOL 401. Prerequisite: A course in high school biology and a course in high school chemistry. This course is not recommended for first semester freshmen. LEC
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Laboratory exercises to complement BIOL 200. Prerequisite: BIOL 200. May be taken concurrently. LAB
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An introductory overview of medical technology as a profession including types of analyses performed, specialties, interrelationships in the health care system and a visit to a clinical laboratory. This course will enable those considering a major in medical technology to have a clear definition of the profession. This course does not meet any degree requirements in biology. No prerequisite. (Same as CLS 210.) LEC
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Examines the evolution of plants and their environments from the origin of life to the present, including the historical development of the biosphere, mass extinctions (past and present), and social implications of future climate changes and deforestation. Not recommended for students with credit in GEOL 121. LEC
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Introduction to the gross anatomy of the human body. Covers the spatial arrangement and appearance of structures throughout the body, including visual identification of these structures. Musculoskeletal relationships, and the anatomy of major organ systems, are emphasized. Not intended for biology majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, or equivalent. LEC
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One of the two laboratories in gross anatomy designed to complement BIOL 240. Emphasizes the three-dimensional appearance and spatial relationships of anatomical structures through supervised observations of pre-dissected human cadavers. Limited to students enrolled in, or seeking admission to, programs that require a human anatomy observation laboratory. Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 240 is required. LAB
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One of the two laboratories in gross anatomy designed to complement BIOL 240. Provides an opportunity to develop a comprehensive three-dimensional understanding of anatomical structures and spatial relationships while gaining substantial dissecting experience. Student perform supervised dissection of human cadavers. Limited to students enrolled in, or seeking admission to, programs that require a human anatomy laboratory. Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 240 is required. LAB
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An introduction to the physiological and biochemical processes and general physiological principles necessary to sustain life. Organ and organ system processes are emphasized. Intended for students majoring in allied health or sports related curricula who require a course in human physiology. Not intended for biology majors. Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or equivalent. LEC
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Designed to complement BIOL 246. Uses experiments and simulations to demonstrate laboratory techniques and representative processes in areas of human physiology. Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 246 required. LAB
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Students may elect a problem from the following fields: (a) general microbiology; (b) immunology, (c) virology, (d) pathogenic microbiology, (e) microbial biochemistry, (f) microbial genetics, (g) microbial ultrastructure. Prerequisite: Five or more hours of microbiology and at the discretion of the department. IND
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Honors section of Biol 307. Prerequisite: Five or more hours of microbiology and at the discretion of the department. IND
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For juniors and seniors majoring in microbiology who are enrolled in special problems in microbiology. Students will present their on-going research for discussion and critique. Technique of date presentation including graph constructions, statistical analysis, preparation of slides, and data discussion. Required of students enrolled in the microbiology departmental Honors Program. One meeting per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 307 or BIOL 308 or may be taken concurrently, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Why are related individuals more similar than unrelated individuals and what is the basis for heritable traits? From Mendel's discoveries of the patterns of genetic inheritance, to the study of transmissible hereditary factors, genetics is central to understanding the biological sciences. Topics include molecular genetics and genetic engineering; Mendelian genetics and mapping; control of gene expression; cytogenetics; epigenetics and non-Mendelian genetics; and population and quantitative genetics. Examples are taken from a wide variety of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, plants, fungi, insects, and humans. Prerequisite: Two semesters of college-level chemistry and BIOL 150 or BIOL 152; or consent of the instructor. LEC
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A general course dealing in genetics and its social and political implications with special reference to human genetics; Mendelian genetics, population genetics, medical genetics, chemical basis of heredity. Not open to students who have credit for BIOL 404. Does not meet requirements for a major in biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151. LEC
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The science of genetics aims to explain why individuals differ from one another and how these differences are inherited. Honors Genetics covers all core topics in fundamental genetics: Mendelian inheritance, meiosis and recombination, mutation, molecular genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics and genomics. Special attention given to the practice of genetics and the complex relationship between genotype, phenotype and environment. A broader goal of Honors Genetics is to provide students a framework for understanding recent advances in medical genetics and the modern era of personal genomics. Prerequisite: Two semesters of college-level chemistry and BIOL 150 or BIOL 152, membership in the University Honors Program; or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Fundamental principles of microbiology with emphasis on physical and chemical properties of the bacterial cell; microbial metabolism, cultivation, growth and death of bacteria; microbial genetics, pathogenesis and immunity, industrially important microorganisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and two semesters of college chemistry, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Honors section of BIOL 400 and BIOL 612, by application and invitation. Prerequisite: BIOL 151, two semesters of college chemistry, and membership in the University Honors Program, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Laboratory exercises designed to complement BIOL 400 or BIOL 700. Prerequisite: BIOL 400 or BIOL 612, or BIOL 400 or BIOL 612 concurrently. LAB
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A laboratory program which includes written reports on fruit fly crosses, exercises on meiosis, probability and statistics, human genetics and computer simulations of genetics problems. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior (preferred) enrollment in BIOL 350 or its equivalent. LAB
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A comprehensive and integrative approach to the study of organisms with an emphasis on physiological, ecological, structural, and behavioral adaptations to differing environments. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, or BIOL 153, and CHEM 184, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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The laboratory exposes the students to the structure and function of the major groups of animals and plants. Students use basic techniques of biological observation, such as microscopy and dissection, and experimental techniques to analyze plant and animal function. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 408, or consent of the instructor. LAB
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Principles of evolution and earth change are used to examine distributions of human populations, wealth, and resources. Readings from the current literature will be included. Lecture and discussion. (Same as GEOG 410.) Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153 or GEOG 107 and membership in the University Honors Program or consent of instructor. LEC
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Introduction to the patterns and processes of organic evolution. Considered are the history of evolutionary thought, molecular evolution, genetics and microevolution, selection and adaptation, and speciation and macroevolution. Emphasis will be placed on how scientists study and document change over time in natural populations, methods for testing hypotheses about events in evolutionary history, and how discovering evolutionary mechanisms at one level of organization can help to explicate general processes in the natural world. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 and BIOL 350, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course presenting an overview of the variety and ancestry of life on earth. Using representatives from prokaryotes, protists, plants, fungi, and animals, principles of phylogenetic reconstruction are illustrated and evolutionary trends in the life history features, functional morphology, and structural complexity of extant and extinct organisms are presented. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Study of the principles underlying species population density changes, community structure and dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, and energy flow and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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This course complements BIOL 414 with field trips and laboratory exercises that illustrate the basic concepts of ecology. Topics covered include methodologies for quantitative sampling of terrestrial and aquatic systems, design of field studies, computer simulation and digital data analysis techniques, and scientific writing. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 414. A statistics course is recommended. FLD
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Lecture survey of cell biology, with emphasis on correlating cell architecture with cell function; topics considered include general cell types, cell evolution, macromolecules, membranes, ultra-structure and function of organelles, motility, transport phenomena, and the cell life cycle. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or consent of instructor. BIOL 350 and CHEM 624 are highly recommended. LEC
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A general course designed to introduce students to the developmental biology of animals. Emphasis is placed on understanding how a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a complex multicellular organism by the processes of cell division, differentiation, growth, and morphogenesis. Lectures stress experimental approaches to investigating development, including classic embryology and modern molecular genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or consent of the instructor. LEC
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A varied program of laboratory and fieldwork designed to introduce students to investigative approaches in the study of the basic concepts of biological science. Students may enroll in more than one section. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, BIOL 151, or exemption. Each section may have additional prerequisites to be determined by instructor. LAB
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Courses on special topics in biology, given as need arises. May be lectures, discussions, readings, laboratory, or fieldwork. Students may select sections according to their special needs. IND
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The preparation and presentation of oral reports on selected topics from the recent research literature. Students may choose one interest group each semester, but may enroll in a given interest group only once. Enrollment in each interest group limited to twenty students. Prerequisite: Course work varying with the topic of the seminar, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Original study in discussion or preparation of review papers on selected topics of current interest. May be undertaken only with the consent of the major adviser and of the faculty member who will guide the research. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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Original study in laboratory or field in selected topics of current research interest. May be undertaken only with the consent of the major adviser and of the faculty member who will guide the research. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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Involvement as teaching assistant for a course in Biology. Credit hours shall not exceed the credits offered for the course being taught. May be undertaken only with the consent of the Director of Undergraduate Biology and of the faculty member who will teach the course. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and Director of Undergraduate Biology. FLD
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Laboratory exercises will examine the function, organization, and composition of eukaryotic cells. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and CHEM 184, concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 416, or consent of the instructor. BIOL 350 is highly recommended. LAB
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Laboratory exercises examine processes of early development in animal model organisms. Students study the normal development of live embryos and prepared slides of sea anemones, sea urchins, frogs and chicks. Study of regeneration and axial patterning through experimental manipulation of invertebrates is also explored. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 417. LAB
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Practical experience in recombinant DNA technology and molecular cloning. Prerequisite: BIOL 416 or a course in biochemistry or microbiology. LAB
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A survey of human behavioral genetics for upper division undergraduates. Emphasis is on how the methods and theories of quantitative, population, medical, and molecular genetics can be applied to individual and group differences in humans. Both normal and abnormal behaviors are covered, including intelligence, mental retardation, language and language disorders, communication, learning, personality, and psychopathology. (Same as ANTH 447, PSYC 432, SPLH 432.) Prerequisite: Introductory courses in biology/genetics or biological anthropology and psychology are recommended. LEC
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Basic principles of neurobiology. The focus will be on the nature of communication among nerve cells and their targets. Topics will include the development, structure and function of nerve cells, chemistry of neurotransmission, processing and integration including the cellular and molecular basis of higher functions and neurological disorders. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151. LEC
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Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to provide students with a detailed understanding of the structure of the human body. Cadaver dissection will reinforce three-dimensional relationships discussed in lecture and each of the main organ systems will be considered using a regional approach to the body. Not open to students who have taken BIOL 240. Prerequisite: BIOL 152. LEC
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A study of common and important non-cultivated Kansas plants, with special emphasis on the ecology of the state; paleoclimatic and paleobotanical background of the central prairies and plains; present climate, physiography and vegetation; poisonous, edible, and medicinal plants; identification by means of simplified keys. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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Faculty supervised laboratory or field research for Human Biology majors. Students design and complete a research project in collaboration with a Human Biology faculty member. (Same as ANTH 449, PSYC 449, and SPLH 449.) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and Human Biology major. FLD
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This course is an overview of cancer biology; distribution of cancer in human populations; origins of the physiological changes caused by the disease; cellular biology of neoplastic cells; experimental causation of cancer; molecular changes in neoplastic transformation of cells; genetic aspects of cancer; introduction to cancer epidemiology and cancer causation in human beings; examples of studies of causation of cancer in human beings (by radiation, chemicals, viruses, heredity, occupation, and lifestyle factors which include aspects of diet and food preparation, smoking tobacco, reproductive and sexual behavior, etc.) and the relative significance of environmental versus intrinsic factors in causation. Prerequisite: A course in general biology and a course in general chemistry. LEC
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Major brain diseases and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, etc., will be discussed in terms of the etiology, molecular, and cellular basis of potential therapeutic interventions. Graduate students are required to present original research paper assigned by the instructor to the class in addition to other assignments for all the students enrolled. Prerequisite: BIOL 150, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of the interrelationships between plants and humans and their significance to the origin of cultivated plants, plant improvement, and utilization. Lecture and laboratory. Not open to students with credit in BIOL 456. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or ANTH 104. LEC
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An introduction to birds, bats, and plants of the rainforest, with emphasis on general characteristics of each of the taxa and their relationship to the tropical ecosystem, as well as their particular anatomy, ecology, behavior, and diversity. Field work focuses on identification of birds and bats (at species level), plants (at family level), and on capturing and preservation techniques. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A field study of structures and dynamics of relationships in aquatic and terrestrial communities in Costa Rica. It covers geography, geology, and biology. Biological interactions like mutualism, parasitism, and ephyfitism between organisms, and the habitat concept and its relation with the environment will be studied. Weekly field trips. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course on birds. Course covers morphology, reproduction, evolution, ecology, and behavior, as well as systematics of Costa Rican birds. Course includes field work on bird identification. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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Course covers mammal morphology, systematics, reproduction, and evolution, with emphasis on the mammals of the Neotropics. Course includes field work on observation and capture techniques of day and night mammals, and identification and preservation of mammal tracks. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course on biotic relations, the role of organisms and marine biodiversity. It covers basic marine principles and physico-chemical processes (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and pH in the water) and their effect on the abundance, and horizontal and vertical distribution of marine organisms. Course includes field work on data collection. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course about coastal, benthonic, and plankton communities. It covers faunal and floral group dynamics as well as morphological and physiological adaptations of coastal communities. Distribution, biomass, density, and community structures of benthonic communities. Composition, distribution, and ecological relationships between zooplankton (animals) and phytoplankton (plants) organisms. Course includes field work on data collection. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course which focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the growth of fish, shrimp, and mollusks, with the purpose of understanding the variables that could produce the best yields. The course covers ecology (population growth, competition, predators, ecosystem dynamics), and fishery biology (growth, fish yield, capture efficiency) applicable in the field experiments. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice class on the study of rivers and lagoons. It includes systematics of rivers, lagoons, and reservoirs. Course includes theory and field work to monitor physical (stream topography, flow, edge vegetation), chemical (nutrients, temperature, pH levels, dissolved oxygen), and biological (collecting and identification of aquatic insects) conditions in rivers. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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Humans influence both natural and managed ecosystems. This course studies the effects of climate change, land-use change, and reductions in biodiversity on ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on how biological and physical processes may be perturbed by human influences. Topics include the greenhouse effect, species extinctions, human disease expansion, and the effects of global change on agricultural productivity. A combination of lectures and discussion address issues from a scientific basis and link these ecological issues to our everyday lives and society as a whole. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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A study of mammals, with emphasis on evolution, biogeography, systematics, and natural history. Lectures, laboratory, and field study. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or 153 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Intended for sophomores planning to enroll in the Biology Honors Program. Students interested in pursing Biology Honors discuss with Biology faculty members the rationale, methods, and interpretations of research being carried out in individual faculty labs to learn how scientific research is conducted. Prerequisite: At least 17 credit hours of college level natural sciences course work or consent of instructor. LEC
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Lectures and demonstrations providing an introduction to the study of insects, including general classification, structure, phylogeny, identification, development, physiology, behavior, ecology, and relations to human affairs. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, 153, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory and field studies of insects, emphasizing their diversity, classification, ecological relationships, morphology, and behavior. Course provides practical application of principles covered in BIOL 500. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 500 or the equivalent. LAB
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Lectures on the nature and mechanisms of natural and acquired resistance including humoral and cellular immunity. Characteristics of antigens and antibodies and of their interaction; ontogeny and cellular basis of immune responsiveness, hypersensitivity; specific immunologic tolerance. Not open to those with credit in BIOL 524. Prerequisite: BIOL 400 or BIOL 401, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 503. Prerequisite: BIOL 503, or BIOL 503 concurrently. LAB
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Lectures and laboratory demonstrations on presocial and social insects, specifically termites, ants, wasps, and bees. Emphasis will be placed on evolution of social behavior and the place of social insects in sociobiology. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or equivalent. LEC
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Lectures. Characteristics and mechanisms of pathogenic microorganisms and disease processes. Elements of host-parasite interactions. Not open to freshmen or sophomores. Prerequisite: BIOL 503, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory to complement BIOL 506. Cultivation of pathogenic microorganisms, diagnostic procedures, and experiments to demonstrate various aspects of microbial pathogenicity and host responses. Prerequisite: BIOL 402 and BIOL 506 (or concurrent enrollment) or consent of instructor. LAB
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An introduction to the evolution, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology of spiders and other arachnids. Special topics include the action of spider venoms; the composition and uses of silk; courtship and mating; predation; social behavior; and the role of spiders in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 511 is encouraged. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 , BIOL 153 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Structure, function, and evolution of the vertebrates. Lectures and laboratory study. A course designed for zoologists. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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Topics will include comparative biology of arachnid orders (spiders, scorpions, harvestmen, mites, and others), external and internal anatomy of spiders, identification of common spider families and genera, and spider behavior. Students will be required to make a small collection (collect, preserve, and identify specimens). Prerequisite: BIOL 509; concurrent enrollment is preferred. LAB
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Lectures and discussions covering the basic nature and characteristics of viruses from a general biological point of view: viruses of bacteria, animals and plants, physical-chemical properties; host cell-viral interactions; mode of replication of DNA and RNA viruses, tumor viruses. Prerequisite: BIOL 400, BIOL 401 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Experiments involving cultivation, quantitation, and identification of animal viruses, continuous cell culture and primary chicken embryo culture techniques. Molecular biology techniques are used to demonstrate the steps in virus replication. The value of viruses as tools to understand normal cellular processes is emphasized in experiments which demonstrate the relative simplicity of viruses and the relative complexity of eukaryotic cells. Demonstrations include transformation of cells by tumor viruses and electron microscopy of virus particles. Prerequisite: BIOL 402 and BIOL 512, or consent of instructor. LAB
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Honors section of BIOL 414 for students with superior academic records. Course covers core concepts on the ecology of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Relative to BIOL 414, topics are presented in greater depth with increased student participation and stronger emphasis on the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. Open only to students admitted to the University Honors Program or by consent of instructor. LEC
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Elements of microbial physiology. Carbohydrate metabolism; enzymes and coenzymes; microbial nutrition; quantitative problems in microbial physiology; a survey of microbial metabolic types. Prerequisite: BIOL 400 or BIOL 612 and BIOL 402, and five hours of organic chemistry. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 516. Prerequisite: BIOL 516, or BIOL 516 concurrently. LAB
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Bacteria and viruses as models of genetic systems. Mutagenesis and repair. Transformation, transductions, and recombination. Molecular biology of gene expression. Prerequisite: An introductory microbiology course. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 518. Prerequisite: BIOL 402, BIOL 518, or BIOL 518 concurrently. LAB
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A study of the diversity of insects, including the classification of all living and fossil orders and the more common families primarily on the basis of external morphology. The biology, ecology, phylogeny, and geological history of each order is covered. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 500, BIOL 502 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Designed to enable students to develop skill in the area of identification of aquatic insects and to gain a detailed comprehension of their community structure and dynamics. The external morphology of all aquatic orders is covered, followed by consideration of specific physiological and behavioral adaptations that facilitate an aquatic existence. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. Requirements include making a collection of aquatic insects. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 414 or BIOL 500. LEC
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Mechanisms and integration of the internal life-supporting systems of insects, emphasizing the interdependence of structure and function. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 408 and BIOL 500, or permission of instructor. LEC
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A study of external structure common to all insect orders, with detailed comparative laboratory studies of representative species. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 500, BIOL 502 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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The classification, structure, and ecological distribution of immature insects, especially larvae of Holometabola. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 502 or permission of instructor. LEC
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A study of the major groups of fungi from slime molds to mushrooms. Emphasis on their activities in natural substrates, isolation techniques, parasitic and mutualistic relationships with other organisms, uses in research, industrial applications, production of mycotoxins and poisons, and physiological, genetic and reproductive behavior. Lectures, laboratory, and field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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BIOL 536 is the honors version of BIOL 416. Completion of this class will satisfy the BIOL 416 requirement. Open to students in the Honors program or by permission of instructor. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Phylogeny, physiology, and embryology; evolutionary processes; characteristics of major ecological groupings. Laboratory will consider major taxonomic categories with emphasis on functional morphology and its evolutionary modifications. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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