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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Liberal Arts & Sciences courses

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A study of the political, social, and economic development of West Africa until the colonial era. Major focus will be on the role of state formation, trade, ecology, and urbanization in the formation of centralized politics from the 11th to the 16th centuries and the impact of the process of Islamization and Muslim revolution on political and socioeconomic change in selected West African societies in the 19th century. LEC
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This course explores the emergence of oral history as a methodology and focuses on the guidelines and ways to effectively use oral history in historical, journalistic, and social science research. The skills of collecting and sorting information gathered through eyewitness accounts, oral traditions, genealogies, investigative reporting procedures, and questionnaires are developed. The nature of the interview in relation to personal and public documents, ordinary conversation, and other related data sources will be considered in this course. LEC
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This course offers an examination of religious thought and practice during the transition from a pre-industrial, unitary order to a modern urban, industrial, and secular society. It will stress the close study of a range of selected texts, including works by such authors and works as Paley, Horsley, Wilberforce, Thomas Arnold, Newman Maurice, essays and reviews, Jowett, Lux Mundi, Gore, and Temple. It will attend to continental European influences on British thought and set theological debate in the wider context of the intellectual history of the period. LEC
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This course surveys the cultural and political history of Tibet from the eighth to the twentieth century. Through readings, lectures, and discussions, students gain familiarity with the dominant features of Tibetan civilization. Topics include the relationship between Tibet and the civilizations of India and China, Tibetan Buddhism, and the tensions between the struggle for Tibetan independence versus claims of Chinese sovereignty. The course also considers the Tibetan diaspora and the reception of knowledge about Tibetan civilization in the West. LEC
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This course considers contemporary China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in comparative perspective. It begins in the early twentieth century so as to set up a comparison between Nationalist, Communist and Colonial China. It focuses on the evolution from the 1940s to the present studying the political, economic and social systems of the three regions that constitute what we now call 'Greater China' and considers, in particular, important points of difference and similarity between them. LEC
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Course examines the history of Japan from the end of the ancient period (c. 1200 AD) through the medieval era (approximately 1573). Issues covered include the formation and destruction of the Kamakura and Muromachi warrior governments, medieval religious life and culture. Writing assignments provide students with opportunities to gain familiarity with historical methods for analysis and to strengthen their written expression. Not open to students who have taken HIST/EALC 586. LEC
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An exploration of changing attitudes in the United States toward children and youth, their subjective experience, their impact on adults, and the conditions that shaped their development. LEC
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The relationship between the family, in its political, economic and social dimensions, and the larger politico-economic context will be examined from a historical and comparative perspective. Points of special attention will include: a) the decline of the household as unit and focus of production, and the effect of this change upon the position of women and b) the family as a point of organization of political and economic power, systems of inheritance, and the family in the polis. Illustrative materials will be drawn from Europe, Africa, Japan, Latin America, and the United States, ranging from ancient to modern times. LEC
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This survey course traces the changing conceptions of human sexuality from early civilizations to the present. It will include, but not be limited to, such topics as attitudes and beliefs, laws, sciences and medicine, cultural differences, and the impact of economic change on sexual definition and experience. LEC
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This survey course will outline the history of women's involvement in reform movements in the United States from 1600 to the present. It will include, but not be limited to, such topics as labor movements, utopian communities, religious revivals, moral reform, women's rights, civil rights. LEC
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Examines colonial American history from the age of Columbus to the mid-1760s. The course seeks to place colonial American history into the larger historical context, particularly the expansion of the British Empire in the early modern period. Emphasis in the course will be on migration, social and economic conditions, and inter-racial relations. LEC
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This course will focus on the history of American Indians, especially those of the eastern woodlands, from precontact times to the 1830's. Particular emphasis will be on the response of Indians to demographic catastrophe, the development of trade between Indians and colonists, and Indian responses to European colonization in British America and New France. The role of Indians in the American Revolution and the changes caused by Removal will also be treated. LEC
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This course offers a comprehensive examination of federal legislation and court decisions in the United States that have affected American Indians. The history of law and policy will be traced from the colonial period, but the major emphasis will be on the struggle of American Indians to preserve sovereignty in the 19th and 20th centuries. LEC
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This course focuses on the growing importance of the issues of slavery and freedom in the United States between 1815-1848. Recently, scholars have demonstrated that the period was one of disorienting, dramatic, and unprecedented change as politics, economics, racial and gender roles, and key institutions were permanently transformed. The course will examine these changes and how they, in turn, remade the values and identities of all Americans. LEC
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The history of the United States in the First Half of the Twentieth Century. LEC
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A history of the United States from its entry into World War II to the present. A study of such selected topics as women's history and feminism, race relations and the Afro-American civil rights movement, power, poverty, the military-industrial complex, McCarthyism, and presidential administrations. LEC
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The people of the United States experienced significant social political, and cultural change during the 1960's. This course studies the history of these changes, focusing on the American people, the institutions that shaped their lives, and the social and political movements, for and against change, that surfaced during this decade. Specific topics include: the struggle for racial equality, the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations; the Vietnam War, the antiwar movement, New Left, and counterculture; feminism's rebirth; the white backlash; and the resurgence of political and cultural conservatism. Course requirements include readings, discussion, and original historical research and writing. LEC
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A survey of Western history with emphasis on such topics as Native Americans and Indian-white relations, environment and resource use, exploration and discovery, expansionism and Manifest Destiny, economic development, urban, rural, and alternative communities, ethnic and racial experience, women and violence. Consideration will also be given to topics such as fur trade, mining, the cattle business, and agriculture. LEC
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A study of Indians in the United States from colonial times to the present. Consideration will be given to the political, social, and cultural history of selected Indian tribes and to Indian-white relations with particular attention to the Indian point of view. Other topics will include a comparative study of Indian policy of nations colonizing in America, cultural intermingling and cultural conflict, and current Indian problems. Slides, films, and guest speakers (including American Indians) will be used in the course. LEC
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A survey of the history of culture and society from prehistory to the present. Topics include Native American life, Euro-American resettlement, Bleeding Kansas and the Civil War, agricultural settlement, urbanization and industrialization, depression and recovery, and modern Kansas in transition. LEC
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A study of the post-frontier era and the struggle to create a regional identity, drawn from legends of the heroic past, varieties of racial and ethnic experience, political culture, and the possibilities of the land. LEC
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A history of the Plains Indians from the sixteenth century to the present. Consideration will be given to tribal culture and society, to the impact of the fur trade and international rivalries on tribes, and to Indian-white relations. LEC
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An examination of the process by which people in the United States have acquired their identities, learned the way of their society so they could function within it, and have transmitted their culture from generation to generation. LEC
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An introductory study of the development of the American economy from colonial times to the present. Investigates long-term trends in output, population, and output per capita, as well as short period fluctuations, and the variables and institutions that determined these fluctuations and trends. (Same as ECON 530.) Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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The origins of American diplomacy from the wars of the 18th century and the Revolution to 1901. The foreign relations of the American government and the reactions of the American people to international problems. LEC
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An examination of the history of United States foreign relations over the course of the twentieth century. Treats America's emergence as a world power before World War I, imperialism and interventionism, involvement in World War I and World War II, internationalism, the Cold War and America's anti-communist crusade, third world nationalism, responses to a global economy, and the obligations of a military superpower in a chaotic world. LEC
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A history of Afro-America from the end of the Civil War to the present. Consideration will be given to such topics as America's capitulation to racism, blacks in agriculture, blacks and the labor movement, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois, civil rights protest, migration and urbanization, Marcus Garvey and black nationalism, the Harlem Renaissance, blacks during the New Deal, blacks in recent politics, the modern civil rights movement, ghetto uprisings, and the changing relationships among race, caste, and class. LEC
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This course investigates the origins of modern European science. Various topics in the physical and biological sciences will be treated, including the works of Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Descartes, Boyle, Malpighi, et al. Scientific societies and technological developments will also be treated as will the relationship of science, society, religion, and other intellectual currents. Recommended: A survey in the history of science (HIST 284) or equivalent. LEC
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A survey of the development of agriculture from prehistory through the present. The major themes of the course will be how various methods of farming have spread around the world, how new techniques have transformed agriculture, and how peasants and farmers have interacted with cities and governments. LEC
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The development of modern biology, from about 1600 to the present; topics discussed include natural history, anatomy and physiology, cell theory, evolutionary biology, genetics, bacteriology, scientific institutions, technological developments, transplants, bionics, cloning, genetic engineering, vaccination, iatrogenic disease, and fluoridation. LEC
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An intensive examination of the history and current status of entrepreneurship in China, Japan, and other nations in East Asia. This course investigates the role of entrepreneurs in Asian economic development from the nineteenth century to the present, as well as the relation between entrepreneurship and Asian cultural traditions. The opportunities and challenges of entrepreneurship in East Asia today are also considered. (Same as EALC 520.) LEC
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This course examines witches, witchcraft, and magic in Europe in the late medieval and early modern period (approximately 1200-1700 C.E.). Particular emphasis will be on the variety of historical and anthropological approaches that have been used to study the subject and their meaning in the context of gender politics and gender theory. (Same as WGSS 646.) LEC
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This discussion course will cover the development of feminist theories from the late Middle Ages to the present. Reading will include Pisan, Wollstonecraft, Mill, Freud, Woolf, Beauvoir, Friedan, Daly, Kristeva, and others. (Same as WGSS 549.) LEC
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A survey of the history of United States business, with emphasis upon the post-Civil War period, that explores the changes to American business brought about by modernizing processes. Topics will include structural and institutional changes, technological and marketing innovations, and relations with workers, with government at its various levels, and with the public. LEC
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A historical study of the colonial origins, revolutionary development, creation of, struggle over and preservation of the American constitutional system from 1763 to 1887. LEC
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A historical study of the evolution of thought and practice of the constitutional system from the conflict over government regulation of business, through the expansion of executive and legislative power, to the evolution of protections of Bill of Rights guarantees by the Supreme Court and the reaction against that evolution. LEC
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These interdisciplinary, team-taught courses survey the artistic, intellectual, and historical development of the great cities of the world. London, Paris, and Rome have been offered in recent semesters, and other cities will be studied in the future. LEC
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A survey of the history of Palestine from biblical origins to the Muslim conquest, with emphasis on such topics as social and religious institutions, cultural and communal diversity, and relations between foreign powers and local authorities. The course further explores the roots of the present conflictual situation in this part of the Middle East. LEC
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A survey of the economic, social, political, and cultural history of the United States from its entry into World War II to the present. Students with credit in HIST 614 or HIST 616 should not enroll in HIST 666. LEC
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This course considers various theories of diaspora (including whether the Jewish experience should be considered a model for diaspora culture), as well as several of the most prominent "new diasporic" formation in the modern period, such as the Black Atlantic, South and East Asian diasporas, and the Romani (or "Gypsies"). Our study of these diasporas helps us to rethink relations among politics, territory and identity in our time. We consider the way rhetorics of collective memory and ethnohistory contribute to the maintenance of group identities outside the homeland. Our focus on diasporas also helps us to gain a clearer sense of the historical origins, and the possible futures of nation-states as the basic building blocks of human polity. LEC
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A seminar designed to introduce students to the theory and practice of historical inquiry. A research paper will be required. May not be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: Twelve hours of upper-class courses in history and completion of HIST 301 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Topics will include: The nature of historical knowledge; the problems of historical inquiry; a critique of philosophies of history; and a study of history and related disciplines. (Same as PHIL 696.) Prerequisite: A distribution course in philosophy. LEC
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An introduction to modern standard Hindi that emphasizes acquisition of basic language skills (speaking, comprehension, reading and writing) through a combination of lecture, drill, and work with the Devanagari script. LEC
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A continuation of Beginning Hindi I that builds on basic skills of speaking and comprehension, and the writing and reading of the Devanagari script developed in Beginning Hindi I. Prerequisite: HNDI 110 or placement exam that establishes a level of proficiency in Hindi suited to Beginning Hindi II. LEC
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Enhancement of speaking, comprehension, reading and writing abilities in modern standard Hindi, with emphasis on grammar. Readings will be introduced from representative genres of Hindi literature. Prerequisite: HNDI 120 or placement exam that establishes a level of proficiency in Hindi suited to Intermediate Hindi I. LEC
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Enhancement of speaking, comprehension,reading and writing abilities in modern standard Hindi, with emphasis on grammar. Readings will be introduced from representative genres of Hindi literature. Prerequisite: HNDI 210 or placement exam that establishes a level of proficiency in Hindi suited to Intermediate Hindi II. LEC
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Practical training for people intending to live, study, travel, or work in Hungary. Focus on conversational skills. Intensive practice in speaking and listening, with vocabulary about Hungarian geography, culture, and business. Introduction to basic grammar. Not for native speakers LEC
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Essentials of grammar, practice in speaking, reading, and writing Hungarian. Five class meetings per week. Not open to native speakers of Hungarian. LEC
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Continuation of grammar; practice in conversation, composition, and reading. Five class meetings per week. Not open to native speakers of Hungarian. Prerequisite: HNGR 104 or equivalent. LEC
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A continuation of HNGR 108. Structured grammar review, composition, conversation, with readings of literary and cultural texts. Three class meetings per week. Not open to native speakers of Hungarian. Prerequisite: HNGR 108 or equivalent. LEC
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A continuation of HNGR 212. Structured grammar review, composition, conversation, with readings of literary and cultural texts. Three class meetings per week. Not open to native speakers of Hungarian. Prerequisite: HNGR 212 or equivalent. LEC
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Independent study and directed readings on special topics. Permission of the instructor who will supervise the student's work is required. Not open to native speakers of Hungarian. Prerequisite: HNGR 216. IND
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The course provides an opportunity to gain effective exposure to intellectual values and methods under faculty guidance in a small seminar setting. The aims of the Freshman Honors Tutorial are: (1) to introduce students to key intellectual perspectives germane to the instructor's discipline; (2) to introduce students to some of the resources and methods available to scholars in the discipline; (3) to build a sense of community among honor freshmen from all across the campus. Required of all freshman honors students, open only to freshmen in the University Honors Program. LEC
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An opportunity to investigate a broad topic across various subjects and disciplines. In alliance with the University Commons at Spooner Hall, this course examines a problem or topic from the perspectives of several disciplines across the arts, sciences, social sciences and humanities. The course is complemented by a dedicated annual university lecture series germane to the course's topic. Open to qualified freshmen and sophomores in the University Honors Program. LEC
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An interdisciplinary survey to acquaint students with some of the main ideas, methods, and outstanding problems in various areas of scholarship. The organization of human knowledge inside and outside the university, as well as the implications of this organization for scholarship and society, are emphasized. Ideas and methods in various disciplines are contrasted and compared. Required of and open only to newly admitted students in the University Scholars Program. LEC
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An opportunity to synthesize topic across various subjects and disciplines. This course examines a problem or topic from the perspectives of several disciplines. Open to qualified sophomores, juniors, and seniors in the University Honors Program. LEC
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An interdisciplinary study of different topics. Designed especially for juniors and seniors. LEC
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Individual and supervised study of an interdisciplinary topic or topics. May be repeated for a total of up to 6 hours. Up to one 3-hour enrollment will count as one course toward completion of the University Honors Program. Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program and consent of the instructor. IND
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An interdisciplinary seminar course designed for advanced-level students in the University Scholars Program. Faculty mentors are invited to attend. Will count toward completion of the University Honors Program. Prerequisite: HNRS 310 or concurrently. LEC
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An introduction to the humanities as a division of learning and to interdisciplinary study in the humanities. Topics include the history and role of the humanities in a liberal education, perspectives and methods in the humanities, the humanities and human diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and interpreting texts. LEC
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An introduction to the humanities as a division of learning and to interdisciplinary study in the humanities. Topics include the history and role of the humanities in a liberal education; perspectives and methods in the humanities; the humanities and human diversity; and interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and interpreting texts. Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program. LEC
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A program of study emphasizing the reading and discussion of some of the most influential writings and ideas that have shaped the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Western world. Western Civilization I includes readings from the ancient, medieval, and early modern periods. Two large-section lecture periods and one small-group discussion period per week. Students enrolling in HWC 114 will attend a general lecture section and a special honors discussion section. Prerequisite: Membership in the College Honors Program or permission of department. LEC
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A program of study emphasizing the reading and discussion of some of the most influential writings and ideas that have shaped the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Western world. Western Civilization II includes readings from the modern period. Two large-section lecture periods and one small-group discussion period per week. Students enrolling in HWC 115 will attend a general lecture section and a special honors discussion section. Prerequisite: Membership in the College Honors Program or permission of department, and completion of HWC 114 or HWC 204. LEC
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A program of study emphasizing the reading and discussion of some of the influential writings and ideas that have shaped the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Western world. Western Civilization I includes readings from the ancient, medieval, and early modern periods. Prerequisite: Not open to freshmen except members of the Honors Program. LEC
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A program of study emphasizing the reading and discussion of some of the influential writings and ideas that have shaped the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Western world. Western Civilization II includes readings from the modern period. Prerequisite: HWC 114 or HWC 204. Not open to freshmen except members of the Honors Program. LEC
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A sequel to the two Western Civilization courses which offers the opportunity to examine influential works of literature, philosophy, history, and political thought written since the end of World War II. In keeping with the decline of colonialism and the growth of global and multicultural civilization since 1945, the readings of the course are selected from both Western and non-Western writers. LEC
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An interdisciplinary course, focusing on different topics and drawing on diverse media, cultures, and historical periods. Humanities-based, this course, depending on its topic, may include the arts, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. May be repeated for credit with different topics. LEC
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The course provides historical, cultural, and political overviews of Europe since 1945 with particular emphasis on the contribution of French and Italian culture and society. The course emphasizes Europe's contribution to Western intellectual thought, social movements, arts and literature, and global society. (Same as EURS 302.) LEC
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The study of great books in English translation from antiquity through the fifteenth century from two or more national literatures. LEC
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The study of great books in English translation from the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries from two or more national literatures. LEC
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The study of great books in English translation in the modern period (late nineteenth and twentieth centuries) from two or more national literatures. LEC
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A survey of the art of ancient Greece and Rome (ca. 1000 B.C.E. -500 C.E.). Emphasis on major sites, architecture, sculpture, and painting. Illustrated lectures and discussion; use of the Wilcox Classical Museum. No knowledge of Greek or Latin is required. Not open to students who have taken both CLSX 526/HA526 and CLSX 527/HA 537, except with permission of the instructor. (Same as CLSX 317, HA 317.) LEC
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Preparation for senior thesis project required of HWC majors. Introduction to writing strategies, library investigation, and time management skills. Open to HWC majors and others engaged in research and writing at the undergraduate level. Class will proceed by discussion of skills, methods, and examples, and will culminate in a written proposal from each student. LEC
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An introduction to recent cultural theory and interdisciplinary methods used across the humanities and qualitative social sciences. Includes examination of traditional views of the humanities and its implicit cultures along with discussion of new methodologies of cultural analysis. LEC
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An overview of Western Legal education, both in historical and modern contexts. Legal subjects such as constitutional law, contracts, property, the courts and ethics are also studied. Students gain perspective on law as a profession, and the legal environments in which we live. Note: this course does not guarantee admission to law school or constitute entry into the legal profession as a career. It is intended to provide information and help students identify interests in the field of legal study. LEC
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An integrated study of several disciplines such as history, philosophy, art, music, and literature as they relate to the twentieth century in one country, or one historical or aesthetic movement occurring during this time. LEC
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Classical Greek and Roman attitudes to gender and sexuality compared and contrasted with modern nations and behaviors. Attention is paid to literature (dramatic, philosophical, medical, and legal texts) and archaeological evidence (vase painting, sculpture, and domestic architecture). The course may include the following topics: age divisions and rites of passage from childhood to maturity; marriage; conception, birth, and infanticide; the family; love; homoeroticism; property and economics; and sexuality and the law, politics, and religion. No knowledge of Greek or Latin is required. (Same as CLSX 374.) LEC
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The study of the evolution of a cultural or literary tradition from the Graeco-Roman world into modern times. The theme of the course will normally vary from semester to semester; topics such as these may be examined: the analysis of a literary genre (e.g. drama, satire, lyric), the transformation of the ancient mythical heritage, the reception of ancient astronomy. Students should consult the Schedule of Classes for the theme of the course in a given semester. With departmental permission, may be repeated for credit as topic varies. (Same as CLSX 350.) LEC
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A study of selected works in literary theory and of selected problems in literary interpretation and comparative literary methodology, designed to examine and apply systematically basic critical principles and approaches. Study of approaches such as feminism, Marxism, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, and cultural studies are carried out through discussion and writing. Prerequisite: Completion of the freshman-sophomore English requirement or its equivalent. LEC
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The complete Divine Comedy will be read in English translation, with equal stress on each of its three parts--the Inferno, the Purgatory, and the Paradise. The poem will be explained for the general reader by specialists having a variety of perspectives. (Same as HIST 420.) LEC
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An interdisciplinary seminar on the relations of several of the humanities and the arts. Topics will vary, but the interrelation of the humanities and arts will be the central focus. Not open to freshmen and sophomores; recommended in the junior year. Required of students majoring in humanities. LEC
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A seminar to result in a senior thesis in the student's area of emphasis in the major. Course includes seminar meetings and individual conferences with the instructor for guidance on topic selection, identification of a project director, investigation of resources, and instruction in writing strategies and documentation styles. Project proposal, completed thesis, and oral presentation required. Required of all students majoring in Humanities and Western Civilization. Not open to freshmen and sophomores; recommended in the senior year. Prerequisite: HWC 420 for students in the Humanities emphasis, and in Humanities and Literature emphasis, HWC 430 for students in the Western Civilization emphasis. IND
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An introduction to the literature of encounters between European and non-European civilizations, drawing on both Western and non-Western sources. The course may include European interactions with areas such as the Mediterranean Basin, Sub-saharan Africa, South and East Asia, and the Americas. World areas and historical periods chosen for study will vary from semester to semester according to the interest and field of the instructor. Not open to freshmen. (Same as EURS 430.) Prerequisite: HWC 114 or HWC 204 and HWC 115 or HWC 205. LEC
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A study of the role of animals (especially mammals), both wild and domesticated, in defining the nature of human beings and human culture through the disciplines of religious studies, philosophy, history, art and literature. Both western and non-western courses are examined. LEC
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A study of the phenomenon of visions, their expression in various media, and theories of visionary experience from the humanities and social sciences, with a particular emphasis on critically evaluating the relationship between the visionary experience and its expression. (Same as REL 464). LEC
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An examination of how illness and health have been conceptualized, expressed, and explored in Western literature and art, as well as a consideration of issues and health from the perspectives of philosophy and religious studies. (Same as REL 468). LEC
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An interdisciplinary analysis of the historical origins and present currents within American medicine. This is an integrated study of basic historical, political, economic and professional influences that underlie the character and practice of health care in our century. LEC
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