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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)
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Lecture and laboratory, study of basic principles of propulsion systems with emphasis on jets and fan systems. Study of inlets, compressors, burners, fuels, turbines, jets, methods of analysis, testing, performance; environmental considerations. Prerequisite: AE 545 and AE 571. LEC
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Presentation and discussion of technical and professional paper reports. Methods for improving oral communication. Discussion of topics such as ethics, registration, interviewing, professional societies, personal planning. Prerequisite: Senior standing. LEC
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Directed design and research projects in aerospace engineering. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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Directed design and research projects in aerospace engineering. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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The purpose of this course is to provide aerospace engineering students with an opportunity to gain more in-depth airplane design education through design work. This design work will involve detailed design of efforts in such areas as: landing gear design, systems design, propulsion system integration, structures design and aerodynamic design. Prerequisite: AE 507, AE 521, AE 545, AE 551, and AE 571. AE 521 may be taken concurrently. LEC
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Advanced theory of turbojet, fanjet (multi-spool), variable cycle engines, ramjet and bypass air breathing propulsion systems. Theory and design of inlets, compressors, burners and turbines. Component matching, cooling, regenerative systems, test methods and corrections. Prerequisite: AE 572. LEC
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Practice in informal speaking and writing and in listening and reading. For those non-native speakers of English not enrolled in a degree program who wish to improve their English and are not required to carry a full course of study in the United States. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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Individualized schedule of instruction in one or more skills at appropriate level(s) for students enrolling in AEC courses. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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Individualized tutorial instruction in one or more skills at appropriate level(s). Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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Practice in a laboratory setting in speaking, listening, reading, writing, or grammar. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LAB
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A course designed to provide beginning English students practice in pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension. Students work with several topics during the semester, building skills in listening to academic and conversational texts and taking notes. Speaking and presentation skills include discussing and summarizing the content of oral text, creating and editing recorded work, and using software to create visual aids for large group presentations. Written work is also required. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A course designed to teach beginning students strategies for improving their reading and writing. There is an emphasis placed on taking notes from academic texts to demonstrate and gain an understanding of the organization of English writing. At this level, students focus on increasing writing fluency and building a foundation of high-frequency vocabulary. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A communicative course designed to help beginning students acquire basic sentence- and discourse-level grammar and basic vocabulary to allow them to begin to express meaning appropriately and accurately in spoken and written English. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A course designed to provide practice at the level appropriate for lower-intermediate English students in pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension. Students work with several topics during the semester, building skills in listening to academic and conversational texts, taking notes, discussing content, and summarizing. Speaking and presentation skills include leading panel discussions, creating and editing digital recordings, and using software to create formal class presentations. Written work is also required. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A course designed to teach lower-intermediate students basic strategies for improving their academic reading and writing. At this level students work toward improved fluency and vocabulary, with emphasis placed on writing complex sentences, paragraphs, and leading to developing academic skills such as writing essays and integrating ideas from several sources into academic writing. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A communicative course designed to help lower-intermediate students acquire sentence- and discourse-level grammar and vocabulary to allow them to express meaning appropriately and accurately in spoken and written English. At this level, students are introduced to more and increasingly complex sentence structures and vocabulary, which they practice in a wide variety of in-class and out-of-class activities including group projects. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A course designed to provide practice at the level appropriate for upper-intermediate English students in pronunciation, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension. Students work with several topics during the semester, building skills in listening and responding to oral texts, taking notes, discussing content, debating, and giving presentations. Written work is also required. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A course designed to teach upper-intermediate students basic strategies for improving their academic reading and writing. At this level emphasis is on increasing fluency and comprehension, deepening vocabulary, and refining academic skills such as note-taking, paraphrasing, summarizing, revising, and integrating ideas from several sources. Critical reading and writing and the process of writing a research paper are introduced. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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A communicative course designed to help upper-intermediate students acquire sentence- and discourse-level grammar and vocabulary to allow them to express meaning appropriately and accurately in spoken and written English. At this level, students are introduced to more and increasingly complex sentence structures and vocabulary, which they practice in a wide variety of in-class and out-of-class activities including group projects. Five credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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Specialized English language and/or orientation courses for students in short-term programs at the elementary or intermediate level, focused on the use of English in particular fields of study or employment. Prerequisite: Placement in this course by the Applied English Center. LEC
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Practice of communication skills: pronunciation, fluency and vocabulary development, question and answer techniques, paraphrasing and discussion; video-recorded practice teaching mini-lectures or demonstrations with feedback by instructor in tutorial sessions and by other native speakers during presentations. Open only to graduate students or seniors near graduation. Four credits in the fall and spring semesters; three credits in the summer term. Prerequisite: Students must have completed all AEC courses except ESLP 126 or ESLP 128, have a score of at least 35 on the SPEAK test; and have written permission from the Applied English Center. LEC
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Final proficiency test. Required of all students enrolled in one or more Applied English Center courses, except AEC 82. Graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory. LEC
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Basic problems in drawing. LAB
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Continuation of AFND 101. Prerequisite: AFND 101. LAB
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A study of principles used to manipulate the elements of color, line, texture, form/shape, as they relate to compositional and imagery concepts, with an emphasis on two dimensional media. LAB
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A continuation of AFND 103 with an emphasis on three dimensional media. Prerequisite: AFND 103. LAB
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The AS 100 and AS 200 Leadership Laboratory courses (LLABs) include a study of Air Force customs and courtesies, drill and ceremonies, and military commands. The LLAB also includes studying the environment of an Air Force officer and learning about areas of opportunity available to commissioned officers. The AS 300 and AS 400 LLABs consist of activities classified as leadership and management experiences. They involve the planning and controlling of military activities of the cadet corps and the preparation and presentation of briefings and other oral and written communications. LLABs also include interviews, guidance, and information which will increase the understanding, motivation, and performance of other cadets. LAB
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Survey course designed to introduce students to the United States Air Force and Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps. Featured topics include: mission and organization of the Air Force, officership and professionalism, military customs and courtesies, Air Force officer opportunities, and an introduction to communication skills. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing cadets with followership experiences. LEC
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Survey course designed to introduce students to the United States Air Force and Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps. Featured topics include: mission and organization of the Air Force, officership and professionalism, military customs and courtesies, Air Force officer opportunities, and an introduction to communication skills. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing cadets with followership experiences. LEC
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A course designed to examine general aspects of air and space power through an historical perspective ranging from the first balloons and dirigibles to space-age satellite systems and the Global War on Terrorism. Leaders, pivotal situations in peace and war, successes and failures are provided to extrapolate the development of Air Force capabilities (competencies), and missions (functions) in shaping today's USAF air and space power. In addition, the students will continue to discuss the importance of the Air Force Core Values with the use of operational examples and historical Air Force leaders and will continue to develop their communication skills. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing cadets with followership experiences. LEC
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A course designed to examine general aspects of air and space power through an historical perspective ranging from the first balloons and dirigibles to space-age satellite systems and the Global War on Terrorism. Leaders, pivotal situations in peace and war, successes and failures are provided to extrapolate the development of Air Force capabilities (competencies), and missions (functions) in shaping today's USAF air and space power. In addition, the students will continue to discuss the importance of the Air Force Core Values with the use of operational examples and historical Air Force leaders and will continue to develop their communication skills. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing cadets with followership experiences. LEC
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A study of leadership, management fundamentals, professional knowledge, Air Force personnel and evaluation systems, leadership ethics, and communication skills required of an Air Force junior officer. Case studies are used to examine Air Force leadership and management situations as a means of demonstrating and exercising practical application of the concepts being studied. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing advanced leadership experiences in officer-type activities, giving students the opportunity to apply leadership and management principles of this course. LEC
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A study of leadership, management fundamentals, professional knowledge, Air Force personnel and evaluation systems, leadership ethics, and communication skills required of an Air Force junior officer. Case studies are used to examine Air Force leadership and management situations as a means of demonstrating and exercising practical application of the concepts being studied. Leadership Laboratory is mandatory for AFROTC cadets and complements this course by providing advanced leadership experiences in officer-type activities, giving students the opportunity to apply leadership and management principles of this course. LEC
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Course examines the national security process (from a military standpoint) from its birth with the Founding Fathers and the US Constitution to the joint warfighting scenarios of today. It looks at the Constitutionally established roles of the legislative and executive branches of government in dealing with defense issues during war or peacetime. It examines the current command and control structure within the Department of Defense and outlines the global responsibilities of the military, specifically of the US Air Force. This course also examines the development of National Security policy and the interrelationship between the Air Force, sister services and the Air Reserve component. Multiple classroom hours on formal military communications skills (writing and briefing) are included. The course culminates with a look at current political trends and U.S. defense policy decisions in some of the world's major geographical areas. A mandatory Leadership Laboratory complements this course by providing advanced leadership experiences giving students the opportunity to apply leadership principles in a dynamic setting. LEC
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Course examines U.S. National Security Policy as it relates to major geographical regions and political issues across the world. It also covers multiple legal, social and policy structures/procedures that Air Force officers and commanders face day-to-day. Air Force communications techniques, formal writing and speaking, are covered in detail. The latter part of the course addresses situations that new officers will encounter in their first few assignments. LEC
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Basic level of oral fluency and aural comprehension. Vocabulary acquisition, pronunciation, grammar, and writing. Reading of simple texts. Not open to native speakers of Amharic. LEC
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A continuation of AMHR 110. Readings in cultural texts. Prerequisite: AMHR 110. LEC
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Intermediate oral proficiency and aural comprehension. Systematic review of grammar. Writing skills beyond the basic level. Introduction to modern Amharic texts and discussion in Amharic. Prerequisite: AMHR 120. LEC
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Continuation of AMHR 210. Discussion in Amharic of texts studies. Prerequisite: AMHR 210. LEC
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An introduction to the history and key concepts of American Studies. Students explore major changes in American culture through the critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary source material. Not open to students who have taken AMS 101. LEC
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An introduction to the history and key concepts of American Studies. Students explore major changes in American culture through the critical reading and analysis of primary and secondary source material. Not open to students who have taken AMS 100. Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program or approval by the American Studies Program. LEC
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An interdisciplinary introduction to individual and group identities over time. Students explore theories and methods relating to identity from various perspectives, such as race, class, gender, sexuality, age, religion, and region. Not open to students who have taken AMS 112 or SOC 112. (Same as SOC 110.) LEC
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An interdisciplinary introduction to individual and group identities over time. Students explore theories and methods relating to identity from various perspectives, such as race, class, gender, sexuality, age, religion, and region. Not open to students who have taken AMS 110 or SOC 110. (Same as SOC 112.) Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program or approval by the American Studies Program. LEC
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An introduction to the Latino/a population (Mexican-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, Dominican-Americans, and Central and South Americans) in the US. Students discuss how US and Latin American societies have shaped Latino incorporation into the United States. We also discuss contemporary political, cultural and social issues that pertain to Latinos/as in the US. (Same as SOC 260) LEC
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A broad introduction to religion in American culture. This class emphasizes the well-established religions with large followings (viz. Judaism, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism). Some attention is also given to other religions active in America. Other topics covered include the relationship of church and state, religion in ethnic and racial minority groups, and women and religion. Not open to students who have taken REL 172 or REL 372. (Same as REL 171.) LEC
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An examination of the major historical shifts, trends, and conflicts that have shaped the multicultural nature of life in the United States from the initial European settlements to 1876. In addition to tracing developments in literature, architecture, drama, music, and the visual arts, this course will investigate patterns and changes in the popular, domestic, and material culture of everyday life in America. (Same as HIST 310.) Prerequisite: AMS 100 or AMS 110 or H IST 128. LEC
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An examination of the major historical shifts, trends, and conflicts that have shaped the multicultural nature of life in the United States from 1877 to the present. In addition to tracing developments in literature, architecture, drama, music, and the visual arts, this course will investigate patterns and changes in the popular, domestic, and material culture of everyday life in America. (Same as HIST 312.) LEC
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This interdisciplinary course covers the history of African American women, beginning in West and Central Africa, extending across the Middle Passage into the Americas, and stretching through enslavement and freedom into the 21st century. The readings cover their experiences through secondary and tertiary source materials, as well as autobiographies and letters, plays and music, and poems, novels, and speeches. (Same as AAAS 317, HIST 317, and WGSS 317.) LEC
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Examines the politics of immigrant, citizenship and space through official, intellectual and popular responses to the growth of Latino/a populations in the U.S. and to international migration to and from Mexico and Central America. Topics include consideration of how responses to immigration articulate racialized and culturally specific (including linguistic and religious) concepts of the nation, and how questions of citizenship and residency dovetail with issues of community "voice", public space, and diverse notions of "security". LEC
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Examines modernism as a transnational cultural movement primarily from the 1890s to the 1940s, but also considers the impact of modernism on later twentieth century cultural production. Provides an interdisciplinary exploration of art, architecture, film, literature and music. Topics include debates related to periodization, the nature of progress, the impact of colonialism and imperialism, the power of reason, and the relationship to previous "traditional" ideas. LEC
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The social structure and organization of American society with special reference to recent social changes. (Same as SOC 330.) Prerequisite: An introductory course in sociology or American studies. LEC
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Examines the influence abroad of US culture, policies and practices and the impact of other countries on US culture, society, and politics. Among the topics that may be examined are race, ethnicity, colonialism, imperialism, migration, technology, communications and media, popular culture, language, health, domestic and transnational organizations, as well as economic, political, religious, military and educational institutions. (Same as SOC 332). LEC
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The course focuses on the concept of leadership and on black leadership in the United States; an in-depth analysis of selected case studies on black leaders, both historical and contemporary. Some attention will be given to the dispersion of Africans into the Americas and the leadership that emerged, conditioned both by environmental factors and the psychology engendered by the system of slavery. Selected successful black leaders will be invited to visit the class from time to time. (Same as AAAS 330.) LEC
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This course examines in depth a specific American studies or theme. LEC
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Examines the African American cultural movement through art; the artistic gaze in novels; representations of African Americans in film; as well as the influence of musical and dramatic performance on the African American image. Considers the impact of American, European, and other cultural influences on black artists of the time. LEC
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An introduction through a topical theme to theories and methods currently used in American Studies. Prerequisite: AMS 100, AMS 110 and AMS 332 or their equivalent, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of the different physical, economic, and cultural settings in the United States and Canada which form the basis for the various forms of livelihood. Emphasis on the United States. (Same as GEOG 390.) Prerequisite: An introductory geography course, or background in United States or Canadian history, social science, or culture, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Interdisciplinary study of selected aspects of American society or culture or of the American experience. LEC
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A survey of women's roles as housewives, mothers, consumers, workers, and citizens in pre-industrial, commercial, and early industrial America. (Same as HIST 530 and WGSS 510.) LEC
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A survey of women's history in the United States that will include radical and reform movements, the impact of war and depression, professionalization, immigration, women's work and the biographies of leading figures in women's history. (Same as HIST 531 and WGSS 511.) LEC
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This course explores the connection between historical changes in the labor process and the occupational choices available to women in different countries. Through discussion and analyses of texts, students will evaluate the construction of a gendered division of work as shaped over time by economic, cultural, and political forces. The chronological and geographical focus may vary depending on the instructor. (Same as HIST 532 and WGSS 512.) LEC
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Examines histories of U.S. women during World War II through an interdisciplinary approach that draws on popular culture and oral history. Utilizes theories and methods of oral history and examines representations of women such as Rosie the Riveter, GI Jane and the Sweetheart at Home. Topics include the consumption of images, the function of images in war and the relationship between popular culture and war. LEC
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The study of special topics in Latino Studies. Students may repeat this course when different topics are offered. LEC
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Analysis of the basic sociological concepts that apply to majority-minority relations; with special emphasis on racial and ethnic interaction in the United States. (Same as SOC 522.) Prerequisite: A distribution course in sociology or American studies. LEC
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The representation(s) of race in significant texts and performance styles in American theatre analyzed according to political ideologies, dramatic movements and the impact of these factors on the representation of the "other" in the theatre. (Same as AAAS 585 and THR 529.) LEC
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An examination of constructions of race and ethnicity around the world. Emphasis is on the social, political, historical, cultural and economic factors that lead to the creation of ethnic and racial identities, ethnic conflict and accommodation, ethnic movements, and ethnic political organization. Racial and ethnic relations in the U.S. are compared with other countries. Major focus is placed on ethnicity in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and/or the Middle East. (Same as AAAS 510 and SOC 534.) LEC
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An examination of the history, sociology, and culture of U.S. ethnic categories (e.g., American Indians, Latinos, Asian Americans, Jewish Americans, Irish Americans). The specific group studied varies from semester to semester. Course may be repeated for credit. (Same as SOC 536.) Prerequisite: A principal course in American Studies, Sociology, or Anthropology, or permission of instructor. LEC
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