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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

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Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)
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The historical development of Japanese. Study of Japanese phonology, morphology and syntax, using the techniques of descriptive linguistics and generative grammar. Prerequisite: An introductory course in linguistics or one year of Japanese. LEC
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This interdisciplinary, team-taught course surveys the artistic, intellectual, and historical development of some of the great cities of the world, such as Kyoto or Tokyo. LEC
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This course examines the interconnections between the evolution of modern Japanese literature and vision technologies such as painting, panoramas, magic lanterns, stereoscopes, photography, motion pictures, television, and computers. The course provides an overview of modern Japanese literature from the perspectives of the visual culture in which that literature was conceived. The course considers such authors as Higuchi, Soseki, Ogai, Shimazaki, Akutagawa, Tanizaki, Yokomitsu, Kawabata, and Abe. There will be additional assignments for students in 612. Not open to students who have completed EALC 412. LEC
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A topic-based course on the culture of ancient China (Shang dynasty to Han). Topics include: agriculture, writing, myth, economy, politics, ritual, thought, art and literature. Readings include primary sources and contemporary scholarship. Students will research selected topics in depth. Assignments will include written reactions to readings, exercises in research skills, essays, and quizzes. A knowledge of Chinese is not required. Not open to students who have completed EALC 415. Additional assignments will be required for students enrolled at the 600 level. LEC
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This course uses myth, literature, history, biography, and other documents to discuss sexual politics in China from ca 1500 B.C.E. to the end of the last dynasty in 1911. Topics include: emperors, empresses, and consorts, polygamy, prostitution, love, yin and yang cosmology, the art of the bedchamber, women's literature, and erotic literature. More extensive writing requirement than 418. Recommended: A course in East Asian studies. Not open to students who have taken EALC 418. LEC
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Daily life and issues of social and cultural interaction between China and Western nations from the Opium War to the present. Fiction, travel diary, historical sources, film, and personal accounts will make up course materials. LEC
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An examination of women as subjects, readers, and writers of Japanese literature. Topics may include images and stereotypes of women in Japanese literature; feminist readings of this literature; female culture; and the psychodynamics of female creativity. LEC
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A survey of the principal modes of Chinese thought from their origins through the imperial period. Not open to students with credit in EALC 132. (Same as HWC 524 and PHIL 506.) Prerequisite: Eastern civilizations course or a course in Asian history or a distribution course in philosophy. LEC
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The history and development of civil and criminal law in China from its beginnings until the present. The course will be taught both by lectures and by discussion of cases. A section of the course will concern modern Chinese law. Prerequisite: A course on China, or general background in law or business. LEC
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A study of the issues involved in doing business with China. The current Chinese political and economic context will be examined, followed by a study of the Chinese legal system and Chinese economic law and regulation. Relevant U.S. law will also be considered. Prerequisite: A course on China, or general background in law or business. LEC
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A comparative examination of the contemporary political institutions, processes and ideas of China, Japan, and Korea. (Same as POLS 656.) Prerequisite: A distribution course in political science or a course in East Asian studies. LEC
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This course provides basic understanding of fiscal, monetarist, and trade policies; how governments in East Asia use them to pursue growth; the extent to which these governments follow or controvert economics to pursue growth; and how the performances of economies in East Asia relate to the US and global economies. (Same as POLS 666.) Prerequisite: POLS 150. LEC
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An intensive study of the problems of ideological conflict, diplomatic relations, strategic arrangements, economic cooperation, and cultural exchange in East and Southeast Asia with special emphasis upon the roles of major world powers. (Same as POLS 676.) Prerequisite: POLS 170 or a course in East Asian studies. LEC
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In-depth examination of China's changing policies toward other countries with special emphasis on policy-making process, negotiating behavior, military strategy, economic relations, and cultural diplomacy. (Same as POLS 678.) LEC
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This course acquaints the student with the broad outlines of the traditional cultures and literatures of East Asia, and explores the interaction between these regions and cultures as well as their continuities and disparities. Course materials include translations and discussions of original sources. The course is most appropriate for students with no background in Asian culture. Does not complete major requirement. Not open to students with credit in ECIV 304. LEC
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An introductory course designed to acquaint the student with the broad outlines of the traditional cultures and literatures of East Asia. By reading translations of original source materials, the student is able to see the interaction among the various cultures as well as their essential continuity. The course is most appropriate for students without any background in Asian culture. Offered for students with superior academic records. Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by permission of instructor. LEC
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This course acquaints the student with the broad outlines of the traditional cultures and literatures of East Asia, and explores the interaction between these regions and cultures as well as their continuities and disparities. Course materials include translations and discussions of original sources. The course is most appropriate for students with no background in Asian culture. Not open to students with credit in ECIV 104. If majoring in EALC and have completed ECIV 104, see major adviser about completing the ECIV 304 major requirement. LEC
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An introductory course designed to acquaint the student with the broad outlines of the traditional cultures and literatures of East Asia. By reading translations of original source materials, the student is able to see the interaction among the various cultures as well as their essential continuity. The course is most appropriate for students without any background in Asian culture. Similar to ECIV 304, but reading and writing assignments reflect the fact that this is an honors course. Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by permission of instructor. LEC
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An introduction to modern economics designed primarily for students who do not plan to major in economics. Topics include economic history, the operation of economic institutions, and the formation and execution of economics policies to meet the current problems of the do domestic and international economy. Course may be offered in lecture or online format. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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An introduction to modern economics designed primarily for students who do not plan to major in economics. Topics include economic history, the operation of economic institutions, and the formation and execution of economic policies to meet the current problems of the domestic and international economy. Prerequisite: Consent of the Economics Department and MATH 101 or MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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The course emphasizes the application of economic methods of analysis to the public policy issues that globalization creates. Topics covered may include the following: winners and losers from trade; links between trade and labor markets; links between trade and foreign investment; the international financial system and exchange rates; outsourcing and multinational corporations; international institutions and regional trade agreements. LEC
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An analytical introduction to microeconomics. Topics include theory of markets, public policy, international trade, economic efficiency, and equity. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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An honors section of ECON 142. An analytical introduction to microeconomics. Topics include theory of markets, public policy, international trade, economic efficiency, and equity. Prerequisite: Consent of the Economics Department and MATH 101 or MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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An analytical introduction to macroeconomics. Topics include determination of aggregate income, employment, inflation, exchange rates, and the role of fiscal and monetary policy in dealing with unemployment, inflation, and economic growth. Prerequisite: MATH 101, MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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An honors section of ECON 144. An analytical introduction to macroeconomics. Topics include determination of aggregate income, employment, inflation, exchange rates, and the role of fiscal and monetary policy in dealing with unemployment, inflation, and economic growth. Prerequisite: Consent of the Economics Department and MATH 101, MATH 104, or eligibility for MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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This course is designed for the study of special topics in economics at the freshman/sophomore level. course work must be arranged by the office of KU Study Abroad and approved by the Economics Department. This course may be repeated for credit if content varies. LEC
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(Topic, instructor, and specific prerequisites to be announced in the Schedule of Classes.) This course will focus on an area of applied economics of current interest. This course cannot be used to fulfill the elective course requirements for the Economics major or the Economics minor. LEC
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This course is designed for the study of special topics in economics at the junior/senior level. course work must be arranged by the office of KU Study Abroad, approved by the Economics Department, and may count as an economics elective for economics majors. This course may be repeated for credit if content varies. LEC
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A directed reading and research course for economics majors. The course involves the preparation of a research paper under the supervision of a faculty member whose area of interest and specialization corresponds with the area of study selected by the student. Prerequisite: Approval of major adviser and selected faculty member. IND
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Open to seniors in the College who have a grade-point average of 3.5 or above in economics and a grade-point average of 3.25 or above in all courses. A directed reading and research course for qualifying seniors. Involves preparation of a research paper under the supervision of a faculty member whose area of interest and specialization corresponds with the area of study selected by the student. Prerequisite: Approval of major adviser and selected faculty member. IND
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Examine issues in economics of contemporary interest. Enrollment is limited to current Oswald, Boynton, and Pritchard scholarship holders. May be repeated for credit, but does not fulfill the elective course requirements for the Economics major or minor. Prerequisite: ECON 520, ECON 522, and permission of department. LEC
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The history of intellectual efforts to understand economic phenomena and the impact of these efforts on the social and economic development of the modern world. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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The application of basic economic concepts and methods to the analysis of energy markets, regulation, and policies. Topics covered include energy trends and projections, economic growth and resource exhaustion, the organization and regulation of fossil fuel industries, nuclear power and non-conventional energy technologies, the world oil market, energy conservation, environmental pollution, and national energy policies in the U.S. and other developed as well as developing countries. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144 or permission of instructor. LEC
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An analysis of the distribution of income and wealth in the United States and a few other developed countries. The concepts of economic inequality, economic justice, statistical measures of inequality and their applications will be discussed. Various theories of income distribution (e.g., Ricardian, Marxian, neoclassical, and neo-Keynesian) will be covered. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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This course examines the definition and impact of social and economic inequality. Beginning with a review of economic and philosophical perspectives of inequality, the course considers the measurement of inequality, current trends in U.S. and international inequality, and policies designed to eliminate inequality. The course requires both writing and quantitative analysis and includes a term paper. Students should be comfortable with methods of quantitative social science. The Honors section is taught as a seminar where philosophical perspectives on inequality are debated and discussed. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. Open only to students who have been admitted to the University Honors Program, or by consent of instructor. LEC
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The theory of consumption, production, pricing, and resource allocation. Not open for credit to students with credit in ECON 524. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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The theory of consumption, production, pricing, and resource allocation. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144 and consent of department. LEC
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The theory of national income and employment, the analysis of aggregate demand, the general degree of utilization of productive resources, the general level of prices, and related questions of policy. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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The theory of national income and unemployment, the analysis of aggregate demand, the general degree of utilization of productive resources, the general level of prices, and related questions of policy. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144 and consent of department. LEC
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An introduction to the statistical analysis of economic data and its application to economic inquiry. Includes extensive use of statistical software. Prerequisite: ECON 142, ECON 144, and MATH 526 or equivalent. LEC
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An introductory study of the development of the American economy from colonial times to the present. Investigates long-term trends in output, population, and output per capita, as well as short-term fluctuations, and the variables and institutions that determined these fluctuations and trends. (Same as HIST 628.) Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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An introductory study of European economic history from the Middle Ages to the 1980s. Investigates the sources of economic growth, and the interaction between economic forces and social institutions. Topics covered will include the rise of commerce, the agricultural and industrial revolutions, imperialism, the Great Depression, and European recovery after World War II. (Same as HIST 528.) Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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A survey of the economies of the European Union, with a focus on the economic development of the member states since World War II, and an examination of the various economic issues confronting them today. (Same as EURS 536.) Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 144. LEC
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An empirically oriented examination of the American economy designed to apply economic concepts to a wide variety of topics such as monetary and fiscal policy, income distribution, the Great Depression, poverty, population growth, the defense sector, education, research and development, technological change, and industrial organization. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144; ECON 520 and/or ECON 522 recommended. LEC
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This course provides an overview of the theory and empirical practice of economic analysis as it applies to environmental issues. Topics include externalities (a type of market failure), the valuation of nonmarket goods, the practice of benefit-cost analysis, and the efficiency and cost effectiveness of pollution control policies. Most importantly, the course permits students to perform economic field research, using state-of-the-art techniques in a manner accessible to undergraduate students. (Same as EVRN 550.) Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142. LEC
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Critical analysis of economic theories underlying such economic systems as capitalism, different types of socialism, communism, and fascism. Comparative study of economic planning, production, distribution, price formation, economic institutions, and forms of government in countries under different economic systems. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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An analytical survey of Russian economic development, with emphasis on the structure and operation of the Russian economy and transition issues. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or 142 and ECON 144 and consent of instructor. LEC
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An institutional and theoretical analysis of the issues arising from the transition from a command economy to a free market-oriented economy. With emphasis on the former Soviet Union, topics will include: assessment of the central planning experience; changes in property rights and their effect on resource allocation; market mechanisms and how they work when market institutions are at the formative stage; and public interest under privatization. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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This course will focus on an area of applied economics of current interest. This course can be used to fulfill the elective course requirement for the Economics major. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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An introduction to economic growth and development in high and low income countries, problems of development, and development policy. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142. LEC
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This course will study the economics of the East Asian countries, especially China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Topics to be covered include economic growth, development and change, international trade, inflation, unemployment, income distribution, and urbanization. Emphasis will be on the post World War II period. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. ECON 522 recommended. LEC
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This course explores development strategies followed in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, and analyzes current debates over development strategy. Topics covered include: debt, structural adjustment, and multilateral lending agencies; trade policy, and regional or hemispheric integration; state intervention in the economy; the role of elites; environmental degradation and sustainable development; land reform and agricultural policy; transnational enterprises and foreign investment; women in work and the household; migration (rural-urban, and international); and grassroots development projects. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 144. LEC
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This course studies the Chinese economy, especially during the post-1979 reform period, and its relationship to the development of the Greater China Circle (China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan). Topics to be covered include economic development during the pre-1979 reform period, economic reform, and its impacts on China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and lessons from the Chinese economic reforms. Prerequisite: ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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This course studies current economic issues facing African countries. It studies the general characteristics of several African economies and examines the impact of economic development policies, including those of international organizations, on the economies of Africa. Topics include poverty, income inequality, debt, foreign investment policies, trade policies, and government regimes. Prerequisite: ECON 104 or ECON 142 and ECON 144. LEC
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Analysis of strategic choice problems. Firms, voters, bargainers, animals, sports competitors, and persons in everyday life choose alternative options with the outcomes depending on the choices of one or more other similar decision makers. Strategies of rational choices will be derived and analyzed in economic and other environments. Prerequisite: ECON 142. LEC
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The basic principles of money, credit, and banking and their relation to prices and business fluctuations; a study of commercial and central banking and the problems of credit control. Prerequisite: ECON 522. LEC
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An introduction to the nonmonetary theory of international trade, the cause and pattern of trade, the gains from trade, and the contemporary issues in international economic policy. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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This course surveys theories of exchange rate and balance of payments determination. Included are the elasticity approach, Keynesian models, and the monetary approach. The mechanics of foreign exchange trading, balance of payments accounting, and the working of the international monetary system are also discussed. Prerequisite: ECON 522. LEC
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The course covers the microeconomics of the sports industry. Topics include analysis of teams, leagues, players, incomes, strategies, history, and government policy. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Survey of the economics of natural resources, designed to introduce the student to the economic models and analytical methods commonly used in natural resource problems and policy issues. Topics covered include environmental pollution and regulation, environmental case studies and applications of cost-benefit analysis, theoretical models, policy issues in the utilization of renewable and nonrenewable resources, sustainable development, and global environmental problems. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Selected aspects of economic theory with emphasis on those parts where the spirit of mathematical analysis, rather than dexterity, is utilized. The simplification of the subject matter is accomplished by stressing complete treatment of special cases such as a two commodity-two individual world. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524 and MATH 116 or MATH 121. LEC
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A general introduction to the science of public finance. Topics covered include public expenditures, public revenues and public credit, and the shifting and incidence of taxation. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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An examination of the structure, conduct and performance of American industry applying the concepts and techniques of economic analysis. Topics covered include the theories of monopoly, competition and oligopoly, concentration, barriers to entry, price-fixing and other restrictive practices, mergers, technological change, and public regulation. The course will also focus on the historical development of American antitrust law. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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This course studies topics in the economic effects of industry regulation by administrative agencies as a substitute for market competition. Topics include various theories of regulatory behavior, the theory of natural monopoly, the economic effects of rate of return regulation on the performance of electric utilities, and the effects of recent social and environmental regulation. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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An analytical and historical exploration of the roles that science and technology have played in the economic growth of industrial societies. This course will examine the forces that have shaped the rate and direction of technological change, and the impact of technological change on Western living standards. Topics covered will include factors influencing the pace of innovation, the diffusion of new technologies, international technology transfers, growth accounting, and models of aggregate economic growth. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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Analysis of labor markets and differences in wage rates and incomes. Topics include returns to education and training, labor unions, unemployment, anti-poverty programs, and other government policies influencing the labor market. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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This course provides a nontechnical introduction to optimal resource allocation from the societal point of view as well as alternative individual mechanisms for achieving such an optimum. Prerequisite: ECON 520 or ECON 524. LEC
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This course studies growth with an emphasis on national evidence and macroeconomic policy issues. Classic and modern growth theories are developed and evaluated on the basis of how well they fit empirical evidence. Theories are developed in which productivity growth results from endogenous changes in technology or in the efficiency with which factors are utilized. The fundamental factors that affect productivity are examined, and they may include government policies, income inequality, geography, climate, resources and other factors. Prerequisite: ECON 522. LEC
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Introduction to information technology and the computer as a general tool processing information. Topics include internet tools (including browsers, search engines and web page construction), networking, computer organization, algorithms, programming languages, data representation and manipulation, binary numbers and Boolean logic, system and application software (including word processors, spreadsheets and presentation software), operating systems, databases, artificial intelligence, social and ethical issues in computing, information security, and mobile computing. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or MATH 104 or eligibility to enroll in MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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Algorithm development, basic computer organization, syntax and semantics of a high-level programming language, including testing and debugging. Concept of structure in data and programs, arrays, top-down design, subroutines and library programs. Abstract data types. System concepts such as compilation and files. Nature and scope of computer science. Not open to students who have taken EECS 805. Prerequisite: MATH 101 or MATH 104, or meeting the requirements to enroll in MATH 115 or MATH 121. LEC
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An introductory course in digital logic circuits covering number representation, digital codes, Boolean Algebra, combinatorial logic design, sequential logic design, and programmable logic devices. Corequisite: MATH 104. LEC
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