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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:


  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Pathology and Laboratory Medicine courses

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The basic mechanisms of human disease, including cellular pathology, inflammation, diseases of immunity, neoplasia, infectious and circulatory diseases and aging are considered through the mechanisms of lectures, small-group problem based care study and autopsy demonstration. Prerequisite: Courses in cell biology, biochemistry, and physiology, or equivalents. LEC
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Human disease is studied by organ systems to include cardiovascular, hematologic, renal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, endocrine, and nervous system diseases. The pathobiology of all major diseases occurring within each organ system are considered by lectures, problem based case study and autopsy participation. Since final comprehensive examination at the end of Pathology II will include material from both Pathology I and Pathology II. Prerequisite: Successful completion of Pathology LEC
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A detailed study of diseases involving the endocrine, genitourinary, neuromuscular, and skeletal systems. Prerequisite: PATH 800 and courses in histology, biochemistry, and physiology, or equivalent. LEC
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Current concepts in the study of stem cells, and the clinical potential in modern disease treatment. Students will learn concepts of stem cells: origin, regulation of pluripotency, and differentiative potential; experimental isolation and manipulation; and clinical application of isolated stem cells. Current scientific literature will be used to highlight recent advances in stem cell biology. Special emphasis will be placed on the ethical and legal issues surrounding the use of stem cells of both adult and embryonic origin. Prerequisite: Course in cell biology (IGPBS module 4, or equivalent); consent of instructor. LEC
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A survey of the basic principles and contemporary literature of signal transduction pathways involved in cancer development and developmental biology. Faculty lecture and student presentations will address selected topics in cellular signal transduction. Student seminars will focus on the scientific content of the publication with emphasis on appropriate presentation of background information, experimental methods, results and potential future directions. Critical discussion of papers will be provided by participating students and faculty. Prerequisite: Course in Molecular Biology (IGPBS module 3, or equivalent). LEC
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Presentation of Pathology Department graduate student research-in-progress. Students will conduct a one-hour seminar in which updates of their current research project(s) in pathology will be reported. The seminars are interactive and students are encouraged to participate in discussion of the presented work. Prerequisite: Completion of the IGPBS core curriculum and status as a second-year graduate student; consent of instructor. RSC
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Current concepts in epigenetic regulation of transcription, including its involvement in disease. Current scientific literature will be used to examine recent advances in the role of epigenetic regulation in transcription and its impact on cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, development, and disease. Students will learn the fundamental concepts of epigenetic regulation and the role of the epigenetic regulation in various gene expression systems. The role of epigenetics in long-range DNA interactions will also be studied, with an emphasis on enhancer, silencer, and locus control region function. Recent advances in the role of epigenetics in disease, including cancer will also be examine. The course will examine current experimental methods to study epigenetics and gene regulation. Prerequisite: Completion of the IGPBS core curriculum or equivalent; consent of instructor. LEC
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A laboratory course in which students may select no more than three of the following: electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cell typing, morphometrics, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, DNA probe, autopsy technique. LAB
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Normal bone development, ultrastructure of bone, and the calcification mechanism. Developmental and genetic abnormalities of bone including dwarfism and osteogenesis imperfecta. Metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis, Paget's disease and osteomalacia. Methods of diagnosis by morphometry of undecalcified bone biopsy. Common primary bone tumors, and the mechanism of bone loss or bone over growth caused by metastatic malignant tumors. There will be practical laboratory portion. Prerequisite: PATH 800 or permission of instructor. LAB
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Microbial factors, host reaction, and disease. Emphasis on recovery from infection, response to reinfection, the resultant clearance of microbes, or the development of chronic infection. Hypersensitivity phenomena will also be considered in the light of data from transplantation immunity. Prerequisite: PATH 800. LAB
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Offered by arrangement. Prerequisite: Approval of the instructor and completion of the IGPBS core curriculum or its equivalent. IND
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This course will teach the fundamentals of writing a grant proposal with an emphasis on NIH proposals. This course is open to any graduate students interested in applying for pre-doctoral fellowships, and especially to graduate students in the Department of Pathology who will be conducting their comprehensive qualifying exams in the upcoming year. This course involves a combination of didactic lectures, student coursework and discussion. This course will include different principal investigators from the Pathology Department as guest speakers. Topics will include different sources of funding, grant submission and post-submission review process. However, the core component of this course will involve teaching the basic framework and components of an NIH R01 application. This course is designed to give practical structural guidance in scientific writing at a professional level and does not give guidance on specific research projects. Prerequisites: IGPBS coursework or equivalent, permission of instructor. LEC
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A lecture and literature review course in which molecular, subcellular, and supracellular organization and function are considered in normal and disease states. Prerequisite: PATH 800. LEC
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Multidisciplinary approach. Cancer pathology. Mutagenesis. Genetics. Carcinogen metabolism. Signal Transduction, Apoptosis. Initiation and promotion. Tumor Immunology. Cell proliferation. Protooncogenes and suppressor genes. Hormonal carcinogenesis. Cancer epidemiology. Anglogenesis. Dietary and environmental causation and prevention. Cancer in various organ systems. (Same as PHCL 939 and PTOX 939.) Prerequisite: Completion of one of the following: IGPBS modules 1-4 or equivalent or permission of instructor. LEC
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