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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

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Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

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Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

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A comprehensive and integrative approach to the study of organisms with an emphasis on physiological, ecological, structural, and behavioral adaptations to differing environments. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, or BIOL 153, and CHEM 130, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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The laboratory exposes the students to the structure and function of the major groups of animals and plants. Students use basic techniques of biological observation, such as microscopy and dissection, and experimental techniques to analyze plant and animal function. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 408, or consent of the instructor. LAB
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Principles of evolution and earth change are used to examine distributions of human populations, wealth, and resources. Readings from the current literature will be included. Lecture and discussion. (Same as GEOG 410.) Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153 or GEOG 107 and membership in the University Honors Program or consent of instructor. LEC
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Introduction to the patterns and processes of organic evolution. Considered are the history of evolutionary thought, molecular evolution, genetics and microevolution, selection and adaptation, and speciation and macroevolution. Emphasis will be placed on how scientists study and document change over time in natural populations, methods for testing hypotheses about events in evolutionary history, and how discovering evolutionary mechanisms at one level of organization can help to explicate general processes in the natural world. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 and BIOL 350, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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An integrated lecture and laboratory course presenting an overview of the variety and ancestry of life on earth. Using representatives from prokaryotes, protists, plants, fungi, and animals, principles of phylogenetic reconstruction are illustrated and evolutionary trends in the life history features, functional morphology, and structural complexity of extant and extinct organisms are presented. Two hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Study of the principles underlying species population density changes, community structure and dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, and energy flow and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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This course complements BIOL 414 with field trips and laboratory exercises that illustrate the basic concepts of ecology. Topics covered include methodologies for quantitative sampling of terrestrial and aquatic systems, design of field studies, computer simulation and digital data analysis techniques, and scientific writing. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 414. A statistics course is recommended. FLD
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Lecture survey of molecular cell biology with emphasis on experimental approaches to understanding cell function; topics include biological membranes and transmembrane transport, vesicular trafficking (secretion and endocytosis), cell signaling, cell motility and the cytoskeleton, and the regulation of the cell division cycle. Prerequisite: BIOL 150, BIOL 350, CHEM 130 and CHEM 135, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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A general course designed to introduce students to the developmental biology of animals. Emphasis is placed on understanding how a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a complex multicellular organism by the processes of cell division, differentiation, growth, and morphogenesis. Lectures stress experimental approaches to investigating development, including classic embryology and modern molecular genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or consent of the instructor. LEC
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A varied program of laboratory and fieldwork designed to introduce students to investigative approaches in the study of the basic concepts of biological science. Students may enroll in more than one section. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, BIOL 151, or exemption. Each section may have additional prerequisites to be determined by instructor. LAB
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Courses on special topics in biology, given as need arises. May be lectures, discussions, readings, laboratory, or fieldwork. Students may select sections according to their special needs. IND
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The preparation and presentation of oral reports on selected topics from the recent research literature. Students may choose one interest group each semester, but may enroll in a given interest group only once. Enrollment in each interest group limited to twenty students. Prerequisite: Course work varying with the topic of the seminar, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Original study in discussion or preparation of review papers on selected topics of current interest. May be undertaken only with the consent of the major advisor and of the faculty member who will guide the research. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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Original study in laboratory or field in selected topics of current research interest. May be undertaken only with the consent of the major advisor and of the faculty member who will guide the research. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. IND
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Involvement as teaching assistant for a course in Biology. Credit hours shall not exceed the credits offered for the course being taught. May be undertaken only with the consent of the Director of Undergraduate Biology and of the faculty member who will teach the course. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and Director of Undergraduate Biology. FLD
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Laboratory exercises will examine the function, organization, and composition of eukaryotic cells. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 and CHEM 130, concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 416, or consent of the instructor. BIOL 350 is highly recommended. LAB
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Laboratory exercises examine processes of early development in animal model organisms. Students study the normal development of live embryos and prepared slides of sea anemones, sea urchins, frogs and chicks. Study of regeneration and axial patterning through experimental manipulation of invertebrates is also explored. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 417. LAB
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Basic elements of systematic theory and practice; phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological and molecular data; interpretation of phylogenetic hypotheses; principles of nomenclature and classification; evolutionary processes and patterns of species diversity; discussion of the aims and needs of taxonomy; species and speciation; construction of keys; significance of biological collections. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. Not intended for students with advanced systematics background. LEC
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Practical experience in recombinant DNA technology and molecular cloning. Prerequisite: BIOL 416 or a course in biochemistry or microbiology. LAB
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A survey of human behavioral genetics for upper division undergraduates. Emphasis is on how the methods and theories of quantitative, population, medical, and molecular genetics can be applied to individual and group differences in humans. Both normal and abnormal behaviors are covered, including intelligence, mental retardation, language and language disorders, communication, learning, personality, and psychopathology. (Same as ANTH 447, PSYC 432, SPLH 432.) Prerequisite: Introductory courses in biology/genetics or biological anthropology and psychology are recommended. LEC
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Basic principles of neurobiology. The focus will be on the nature of communication among nerve cells and their targets. Topics will include the development, structure and function of nerve cells, chemistry of neurotransmission, processing and integration including the cellular and molecular basis of higher functions and neurological disorders. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151. LEC
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Integrated lecture and laboratory course designed to provide students with a detailed understanding of the structure of the human body. Cadaver dissection will reinforce three-dimensional relationships discussed in lecture and each of the main organ systems will be considered using a regional approach to the body. Not open to students who have taken BIOL 240. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or equivalent; BIOL 240, BIOL 241, or BIOL 242; and instructor consent. LEC
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A study of common and important non-cultivated Kansas plants, with special emphasis on the ecology of the state; paleoclimatic and paleobotanical background of the central prairies and plains; present climate, physiography and vegetation; poisonous, edible, and medicinal plants; identification by means of simplified keys. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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Faculty supervised laboratory or field research for Human Biology majors. Students design and complete a research project in collaboration with a Human Biology faculty member. (Same as ANTH 449, PSYC 449, and SPLH 449.) Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and Human Biology major. FLD
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This course is an overview of cancer biology; distribution of cancer in human populations; origins of the physiological changes caused by the disease; cellular biology of neoplastic cells; experimental causation of cancer; molecular changes in neoplastic transformation of cells; genetic aspects of cancer; introduction to cancer epidemiology and cancer causation in human beings; examples of studies of causation of cancer in human beings (by radiation, chemicals, viruses, heredity, occupation, and lifestyle factors which include aspects of diet and food preparation, smoking tobacco, reproductive and sexual behavior, etc.) and the relative significance of environmental versus intrinsic factors in causation. Prerequisite: A course in general biology and a course in general chemistry. LEC
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Major brain diseases and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, etc., will be discussed in terms of the etiology, molecular, and cellular basis of potential therapeutic interventions. Graduate students are required to present original research paper assigned by the instructor to the class in addition to other assignments for all the students enrolled. Prerequisite: BIOL 150, or consent of instructor. LEC
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An introduction to birds, bats, and plants of the rainforest, with emphasis on general characteristics of each of the taxa and their relationship to the tropical ecosystem, as well as their particular anatomy, ecology, behavior, and diversity. Field work focuses on identification of birds and bats (at species level), plants (at family level), and on capturing and preservation techniques. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course on birds. Course covers morphology, reproduction, evolution, ecology, and behavior, as well as systematics of Costa Rican birds. Course includes field work on bird identification. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course on biotic relations, the role of organisms and marine biodiversity. It covers basic marine principles and physico-chemical processes (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and pH in the water) and their effect on the abundance, and horizontal and vertical distribution of marine organisms. Course includes field work on data collection. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice course which focuses on the techniques used for monitoring the growth of fish, shrimp, and mollusks, with the purpose of understanding the variables that could produce the best yields. The course covers ecology (population growth, competition, predators, ecosystem dynamics), and fishery biology (growth, fish yield, capture efficiency) applicable in the field experiments. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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A theory and practice class on the study of rivers and lagoons. It includes systematics of rivers, lagoons, and reservoirs. Course includes theory and field work to monitor physical (stream topography, flow, edge vegetation), chemical (nutrients, temperature, pH levels, dissolved oxygen), and biological (collecting and identification of aquatic insects) conditions in rivers. Taught in Golfito, Costa Rica. Contact Undergraduate Biology, or the Office of Study Abroad. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or equivalent. Fall and spring semester courses are taught in Spanish; therefore, four semesters of Spanish are required. Summer courses are taught in English. LEC
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Humans influence both natural and managed ecosystems. This course studies the effects of climate change, land-use change, and reductions in biodiversity on ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on how biological and physical processes may be perturbed by human influences. Topics include the greenhouse effect, species extinctions, human disease expansion, and the effects of global change on agricultural productivity. A combination of lectures and discussion address issues from a scientific basis and link these ecological issues to our everyday lives and society as a whole. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Introductory lecture course to the field of Parasitology. Provides basic knowledge about the morphology and biology of parasitic animals. Coverage includes a diversity of protozoan and metazoan groups parasitizing animals, including humans (e.g., malaria, amoebas, hookworms, tapeworms). Some emphasis is given to groups of parasites of particular medical and/or economic importance. Selected principles of parasitism are introduced. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory course in the study of protozoan and metazoan parasites of animal, including humans, emphasizing their diversity, classification, morphology, and identification. One three-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 480. LAB
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A study of mammals, with emphasis on evolution, biogeography, systematics, and natural history. Lectures, laboratory, and field study. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or 153 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Intended for sophomores planning to enroll in the Biology Honors Program. Students interested in pursing Biology Honors discuss with Biology faculty members the rationale, methods, and interpretations of research being carried out in individual faculty labs to learn how scientific research is conducted. Prerequisite: At least 17 credit hours of college level natural sciences coursework or consent of instructor. LEC
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Lectures and demonstrations providing an introduction to the study of insects, including general classification, structure, phylogeny, identification, development, physiology, behavior, ecology, and relations to human affairs. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, 153, or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory and field studies of insects, emphasizing their diversity, classification, ecological relationships, morphology, and behavior. Course provides practical application of principles covered in BIOL 500. Prerequisite: Concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOL 500 or the equivalent. LAB
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Lectures on the nature and mechanisms of natural and acquired resistance including humoral and cellular immunity. Characteristics of antigens and antibodies and of their interaction; ontogeny and cellular basis of immune responsiveness, hypersensitivity; specific immunologic tolerance. Not open to those with credit in BIOL 524. Prerequisite: BIOL 400 or BIOL 401, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 503. Prerequisite: BIOL 503, or BIOL 503 concurrently. LAB
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Lectures and laboratory demonstrations on presocial and social insects, specifically termites, ants, wasps, and bees. Emphasis will be placed on evolution of social behavior and the place of social insects in sociobiology. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or equivalent. LEC
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Lectures. Characteristics and mechanisms of pathogenic microorganisms and disease processes. Elements of host-parasite interactions. Not open to freshmen or sophomores. Prerequisite: BIOL 503, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Laboratory to complement BIOL 506. Cultivation of pathogenic microorganisms, diagnostic procedures, and experiments to demonstrate various aspects of microbial pathogenicity and host responses. Prerequisite: BIOL 402 and BIOL 506 (or concurrent enrollment) or consent of instructor. LAB
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An introduction to the evolution, anatomy, physiology, behavior, and ecology of spiders and other arachnids. Special topics include the action of spider venoms; the composition and uses of silk; courtship and mating; predation; social behavior; and the role of spiders in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 511 is encouraged. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 , BIOL 153 or permission of instructor. LEC
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Structure, function, and evolution of the vertebrates. Lectures and laboratory study. A course designed for zoologists. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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Topics will include comparative biology of arachnid orders (spiders, scorpions, harvestmen, mites, and others), external and internal anatomy of spiders, identification of common spider families and genera, and spider behavior. Students will be required to make a small collection (collect, preserve, and identify specimens). Prerequisite: BIOL 509; concurrent enrollment is preferred. LAB
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Lectures and discussions covering the basic nature and characteristics of viruses from a general biological point of view: viruses of bacteria, animals and plants, physical-chemical properties; host cell-viral interactions; mode of replication of DNA and RNA viruses, tumor viruses. Prerequisite: BIOL 400, BIOL 401 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Experiments involving cultivation, quantitation, and identification of animal viruses, continuous cell culture and primary chicken embryo culture techniques. Molecular biology techniques are used to demonstrate the steps in virus replication. The value of viruses as tools to understand normal cellular processes is emphasized in experiments which demonstrate the relative simplicity of viruses and the relative complexity of eukaryotic cells. Demonstrations include transformation of cells by tumor viruses and electron microscopy of virus particles. Prerequisite: BIOL 402 and BIOL 512, or consent of instructor. LAB
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Honors section of BIOL 414 for students with superior academic records. Course covers core concepts on the ecology of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Relative to BIOL 414, topics are presented in greater depth with increased student participation and stronger emphasis on the primary scientific literature. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. Open only to students admitted to the University Honors Program or by consent of instructor. LEC
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Elements of microbial physiology. Carbohydrate metabolism; enzymes and coenzymes; microbial nutrition; quantitative problems in microbial physiology; a survey of microbial metabolic types. Prerequisite: BIOL 400 or BIOL 612 and BIOL 402, and five hours of organic chemistry. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 516. Prerequisite: BIOL 516, or BIOL 516 concurrently. LAB
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Bacteria and viruses as models of genetic systems. Mutagenesis and repair. Transformation, transductions, and recombination. Molecular biology of gene expression. Prerequisite: An introductory microbiology course. LEC
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Laboratory designed to complement BIOL 518. Prerequisite: BIOL 402, BIOL 518, or BIOL 518 concurrently. LAB
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A study of the diversity of insects, including the classification of all living and fossil orders and the more common families primarily on the basis of external morphology. The biology, ecology, phylogeny, and geological history of each order is covered. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 500, BIOL 502 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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Designed to enable students to develop skill in the area of identification of aquatic insects and to gain a detailed comprehension of their community structure and dynamics. The external morphology of all aquatic orders is covered, followed by consideration of specific physiological and behavioral adaptations that facilitate an aquatic existence. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. Requirements include making a collection of aquatic insects. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 414 or BIOL 500. LEC
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Mechanisms and integration of the internal life-supporting systems of insects, emphasizing the interdependence of structure and function. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 408 and BIOL 500, or permission of instructor. LEC
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A study of external structure common to all insect orders, with detailed comparative laboratory studies of representative species. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 500, BIOL 502 or equivalent, or permission of instructor. LEC
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The classification, structure, and ecological distribution of immature insects, especially larvae of Holometabola. Includes both lectures and laboratory exercises. The course is offered at the 500 and 700 levels, with additional assignments at the 700 level. Prerequisite: BIOL 502 or permission of instructor. LEC
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A study of the major groups of fungi from slime molds to mushrooms. Emphasis on their activities in natural substrates, isolation techniques, parasitic and mutualistic relationships with other organisms, uses in research, industrial applications, production of mycotoxins and poisons, and physiological, genetic and reproductive behavior. Lectures, laboratory, and field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 150, or BIOL 151 and BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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BIOL 536 is the honors version of BIOL 416. Completion of this class will satisfy the BIOL 416 requirement. Open to students in the Honors program or by permission of instructor. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Phylogeny, physiology, and embryology; evolutionary processes; characteristics of major ecological groupings. Laboratory will consider major taxonomic categories with emphasis on functional morphology and its evolutionary modifications. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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An advanced course designed to expose students to evolutionary change in the developmental patterning of plant and animal form. This course integrates multiple biological disciplines including phylogenetics, comparative morphology, molecular evolution and developmental genetics to explore biodiversity at a mechanistic level. Topics range from issues surrounding homology assessment to empirical examples of how changes in gene expression or function may have shaped morphological diversity. Prerequisite: BIOL 350 or equivalent. LEC
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The principal physiological processes of higher plants including photosynthesis, respiration, water relations, mineral nutrition, and factors associated with morphogenesis. Prerequisite: BIOL 408 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Study of detailed microscopic anatomy of cells, tissues, and organs of mammals. Examples are drawn from normal and abnormal tissue, histochemistry, and electron microscopy. Lecture and demonstrations. A course in anatomy and physiology is highly recommended. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153. LEC
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Statistical concepts related to biological problems. Topics include the scientific method, data representation, descriptive statistics, elementary probability distributions, estimation and hypothesis testing, emphasizing the analysis of variation. Prerequisite: College algebra and ten hours of natural science. LEC
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Introductory statistical analyses on microcomputers. Data entry and export; simple graphs and exploratory data analysis; descriptive statistics; sampling; point and interval estimation; one and two sample t-tests; Chi-square; regression and correlation; analysis of variance; and nonparametric methods. Prerequisite: BIOL 570 or equivalent (may be taken concurrently). LAB
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An introduction to the study of the distribution of life on earth. Covers geographical patterns of species diversity and the processes that give rise to those patterns: speciation, extinction, dispersal, vicariance, continental drift, ecological interactions, and phylogeny. Topics are presented within the framework of evolutionary history and include discussion of the biology of species on islands, terrestrial biomes, altitudinal zonation of species, latitudinal species gradients, historical factors governing species distributions, macroevolutionary trends in the fossil record, and application of modern molecular techniques for testing biogeographical hypotheses. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or 153 and past or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 412, 413, 414, or 550; or permission of Instructor. LEC
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A study of amphibians and reptiles. This lecture course will explore the taxonomic diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and current areas of active research in herpetology. Topics will be considered within a phylogenetic framework, and include discussion on systematics, biogeography, tetrapod origins, skeletal systems, growth, circulatory system, locomotion, thermal and water regulation, hibernation, ecology, sexual behavior, parental care, and mimicry. LEC
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A study of fishes. Lecture topics include the structure and adaptations of fishes to the aquatic environment and a survey of major fish groups with emphasis on their evolution and biogeography. Laboratory topics include a survey of fish diversity using specimens and the use of keys to identify fishes, with emphasis on the Kansas fish fauna. This course meets with BIOL 792. Students taking this course at the 700 level will have additional work required of them. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 and/or BIOL 413. LEC
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A lecture and laboratory course on the biology, evolution, and diversity of birds. Prerequisite: BIOL 412 (or BIOL 413), or permission of instructor. LEC
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Students learn basic concepts of forest productivity, forest water relations, forest hydrology, nutrient cycling, through soils and vegetation, nutrient uptake, carbon cycling, decomposition, linkages to aquatic ecosystems, and agents of disturbance to these cycles. The class spends a significant part of the semester exploring forest soil profiles and the challenges they present to different forest ecosystems. We discuss the function of forested ecosystems in a global context and identify and understand smaller-scale processes that drive forest function. Prerequisite: CHEM 135 and BIOL 414. LEC
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A lecture course providing balanced coverage of Mendelian and molecular genetics of humans; includes discussions and presentations on current issues in human and medical genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 350. LEC
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An introduction for pre-service teachers to the tools used by scientists to solve scientific problems. Topics include design of experiments and interpretation of their results, use of statistics, mathematical modeling, laboratory safety, ethical treatment of human subjects, writing scientific papers, giving oral presentations, and obtaining data from the scientific literature. Open only to students in the UKanTeach program. LEC
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A synthesis and discussion of current trends in a discipline or disciplines related to one of the degrees offered in the biological sciences. Emphasis is placed on providing seniors with an appreciation of the discipline's state-of-the-art and on developing skills for success in the next stage of a career in the biological sciences. Topics depend on the associated degree program. Prerequisite: Must be taken in the final year of a degree and students must have completed most of the course work required for one of the degrees in the biological sciences. LEC
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Designed to offer the essentials of the chemistry of the constituents of living organisms and the changes these constituents undergo (during life processes) in the human body and other living forms. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and one semester of organic chemistry. LEC
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Introduction to basic concepts, focused at community and species level. Architectural ecomorphology of plants and their physiological responses to physical factors: solar radiation, climate, and soils. Plant succession as an interaction among species differing in ecomorphology and life style. Classification and ordination of plant communities: practice and theory. Other topics include: species diversity and lognormal distribution as to abundance classes; species/area relations and theory of island biogeography; allelochemic defenses; genecology; paleoecology. Prerequisite: BIOL 414 or consent of instructor. Concurrent enrollment in parallel laboratory, BIOL 607, recommended. LEC
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A lecture/laboratory course providing hands-on experience with plant identification, a history of plant classification, the principles of nomenclature and character analysis, the basics of systematics theory, and a phylogenically-oriented introduction to vascular plant diversity. Prerequisite: BIOL 413 or equivalent. LEC
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Physiological responses of higher plants to environmental factors are discussed. Major topics are: water relations, heat transfer, resistance to water and temperature stress, dormancy, photoperiodism, photosynthesis and respiration under natural conditions, and effects of environmental pollution. Prerequisite: BIOL 408 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Introduction to quantitative analysis of plant communities and correlated environmental parameters; field and/or laboratory measurements of ecophysiological traits and comparative ecomorphology of principal species. Prerequisite: BIOL 414. Concurrent enrollment in parallel lecture, BIOL 602, recommended, but not required. LAB
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A seminar course which will focus on current research in microbiology. A term paper will be required of each student. May be repeated for credit. Required of all majors in the senior year. Prerequisite: Two courses in microbiology. LEC
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An introduction to the use of molecular data in systematics and population biology. Topics include: evolution of genes and proteins; properties of mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA, ribosomal RNA genes, protein-coding genes, and repetitive DNAs; laboratory methods for data collection; and data analysis. Prerequisite: BIOL 350. BIOL 550 or equivalent is recommended. LEC
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Lectures. Fundamental principles of microbiology with emphasis in physical and chemical properties of the bacterial cell; microbial metabolism, cultivation, growth and death of bacteria; microbial genetics; pathogenesis and immunity, industrially important microorganisms. Meets with BIOL 400, but students will be given additional and more advanced assignments, and will carry higher expectations. Prerequisite: BIOL 150 or BIOL 151 and two semesters of college chemistry, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Social organization, evolution, behavior, morphology, communication, pollination biology, and ecology of honeybees. Experience will be gained with colony dynamics and behavior while working with bees in the field. Prerequisite: BIOL 152, BIOL 153, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of the major human diseases transmitted by arthropods with emphasis on the biology and ecology of vectors, vector feeding mechanisms as related to disease transmission, epidemiology of arthropod-borne diseases, and the impact of arthropod-borne diseases on humans. Laboratory work on recognition of vector species, information sources, and use of taxonomic keys. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153 and a course in microbiology or consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of the structure and evolution of ancient life; the nature and diversity of life through time; the interactions of ancient organisms with their environments and the information that the study of fossils provides about ancient environments; the use of fossils to determine the ages of rocks and the timing of past events in earth history; and the patterns of extinction through time. (Same as GEOL 521.) Prerequisite: BIOL 100, BIOL 101, BIOL 152, BIOL 153, GEOL 105, or GEOL 304. LEC
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Laboratory course in the study of fossils with emphasis on the practice of paleontology and the morphology of ancient organisms. (Same as GEOL 523.) LAB
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The role of natural selection in animal behavior, and the influence of behavior on population biology and social dynamics of animal species. Topics include: game theory and optimization as applied to animal behavior; altruism, cooperation and competition; kin recognition and interactions; group formation and dynamics, dominance, aggression, and territoriality; feeding strategies; reproductive behavior including mate choice, parental care, and mating systems. Prerequisite: BIOL 152; either BIOL 350, BIOL 412 or BIOL 414 recommended; or consent of instructor. LEC
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Examination of the concepts and processes involved in conservation of plant and animal populations and communities. Topics to be covered include conservation of endangered species, problems with invasions of exotic species and habitat fragmentation, wildlife management, and design of nature reserves. Prerequisite: BIOL 414, BIOL 412 strongly recommended. LEC
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First semester of a two-semester lecture course in introductory biochemistry. Emphasis upon the physical structure of macromolecules and membranes, enzyme structure/function, and enzyme kinetics. Prerequisite: CHEM 235 or consent of instructor. LEC
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The laboratory portion of BIOL 600 or 636. Experiments have been selected to introduce the student to cell constituents and biochemical reactions. One four-hour laboratory and one-hour lecture each week. Prerequisite: BIOL 600 or BIOL 636, or concurrent enrollment. LAB
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Second semester of a two-semester lecture course in introductory biochemistry. Emphasis upon the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Prerequisite: BIOL 636. LEC
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The laboratory portion of BIOL 638. One four-hour laboratory and a one-hour lecture each week. Experiments have been selected to familiarize students with experimental biochemical techniques using state-of-the-art methodology. Prerequisite: BIOL 637 and 638 (BIOL 638 may be taken concurrently). LAB
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A lecture course in which fossil plants, protists and fungi are examined throughout geologic time. Emphasis will be directed at paleoecology, biogeography and the stratigraphic distribution and composition of ancient floras. (Same as GEOL 528.) Prerequisite: BIOL 413 or permission of instructor. LEC
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An examination of selected fossil plants throughout geological time and the techniques used to study them; laboratory will include identification and the use of plant fossils in biostratigraphy. (Same as GEOL 529.) Prerequisite: BIOL 413 or permission of instructor. Must be taken concurrently with BIOL 640. LAB
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Lecture and discussion of the basic mechanism of organic maintenance and integration; a comparative treatment of the uniformities and diversity of animal function; emphasis on environmental adaptations and evolutionary relationships. Prerequisite: BIOL 408, five hours of organic chemistry, and one year of college physics, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Lectures and demonstrations. An intermediate course in the functions, mechanisms and interactions of mammalian organ systems. Discussions span topics from molecular to whole animal functions. Required for pharmacy students and strongly recommended for students planning advanced work in any area of physiology. The student is assumed to have the knowledge and ability to utilize their math and science background. Prerequisite: Five hours of organic chemistry, a course of college physics. LEC
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Laboratory experiments in representative areas of mammalian physiology designed to complement BIOL 646. Not open to students with credit in BIOL 306. Prerequisite: BIOL 646 or BIOL 726 or concurrent enrollment LAB
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An introduction to the theory of macroevolution and the fundamental principles of systematics. Intended for students planning to pursue advanced studies in organismal biology, evolution, and/or systematics. Topics in macroevolution will include hierarchy theory, species concepts, speciation and species selection. Methods of phylogenetic estimation will be discussed and include parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Baysian inference. Evolutionary studies utilizing phylogenies including tests of homology, studies of character evolution, and biogeography will be discussed. An overview of classification and nomenclature will also be provided. Prerequisite: BIOL 412 or equivalent. LEC
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The course builds an in depth knowledge about basic mechanisms of synaptic communication among nerve cells and their targets, and the structure and function of nervous systems. Topics include nervous system development and synapse formation, structure and function of neurons, physiological and molecular basis of synaptic communication between neurons, mechanisms of synaptic plasticity involved in learning and memory, sensory systems (vision, auditory, vestibular, motor reflexes and pain), processing of neural information at cellular and system levels, synapse regeneration and diseases of the nervous system. Prerequisite: BIOL 435 (Introduction to Neurobiology), or consent of instructor. LEC
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A comparative analysis of behavior as an adaptive mechanism; emphasis on ontogenetic and evolutionary aspects of behavior. Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or BIOL 153, and PSYC 104, or consent of instructor. LEC
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