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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

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Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

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Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Liberal Arts & Sciences courses

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Application of the concepts and methods of the geosciences to interpretation of the archeological record. The course will focus primarily on the field aspects of geoarchaeology (e.g., stratigraphy, site formational processes, and landscape reconstruction), and to a lesser extent on the array of laboratory approaches available. (Same as ANTH 517.) Prerequisite: GEOG 104, ANTH 110, or ANTH 310. LEC
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A broad study of the principles and properties of soils and their distribution on the landscape. Topics covered include: pedology, clay mineralogy, soil physics, soil chemistry, management of soils, soil biology, taxonomy, and soil geomorphology. Laboratory section and a field project are required. Not open to students who have taken EVRN 335 or GEOG 335. (Same as EVRN 535.) Prerequisite: GEOG 104 or GEOL 101 or consent of instructor; BIOL 100 and CHEM 184 or CHEM 185 recommended. LEC
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An introduction to spatial and temporal variation in natural plant populations and communities. Included is an introduction to methods of analysis, and an overview of structure and process in the earth's major biomes. Prerequisite: GEOG 331; or an introductory biology/botany course and GEOG 104; or consent of instructor. LEC
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This course examines the physical and chemical properties of soils and methods of evaluation. Physical topics include the movement of water, heat, gases, and solutes through soil. Chemistry topics include solid and solution speciation, mineral solubility, ion exchange, and oxidation-reduction reactions in soils. (Same as EVRN 538.) Prerequisite: EVRN 335 or GEOG 335 or EVRN 535 or GEOG 535; CHEM 188 or CHEM 189, MATH 121, and PHSX 114, or consent of the instructor. LEC
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A critical study of land forms in relation to tectonics, climatic environment, and geologic processes. The use of geomorphic methods in the interpretation of Cenozoic history is emphasized. Laboratory exercises in analysis of field observations, maps, and photographs. Required field trip and fee. (Same as GEOL 541.) Prerequisite: GEOL 101 and GEOL 103, GEOG 104 and GEOG 105, or GEOL 103 and GEOL 304. LEC
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Acquaints students with the complexities of debates on environmental problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Topics addressed may include deforestation, desert expansion, wildlife conservation, soil erosion, climate change, coral reef destruction, water resources development, mangrove preservation, the environmental effects of war, industrialization, and urbanization. Class presentations and projects synthesize the perspectives of both human and physical geography. (Same as AAAS 551.) Prerequisite: GEOG 104 or permission of instructor. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in urban/economic geography. May include specific course work under the headings of energy, economic development, international trade, environmental perception, housing, transportation, and migration. May be repeated. LEC
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Acquaints students with the values of social parameters of African agricultural and pastoral practice. Topics include customary land rights, African perspectives on the natural world, gender issues in African agriculture, and the urbanization of African cultures. The course also contrasts African views with those of Western development practitioners and donor agencies. Case studies from different countries are used to highlight the continent's regional differences. (Same as AAAS 553.) LEC
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A discussion and analysis of the basic facts and causes of energy problems on a national and world scale. Examines current production, consumption, efficiency, reserves, conservation, and other energy policy options, including adjustments that will affect consumer use, national politics, and strategic issues. Prerequisite: GEOG 102 or GEOG 375. LEC
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An intermediate level course in urban geography, with an emphasis on cities in the developing world. Example cities in Latin America and the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and/or Southeast Asia may be examined. The main focus is on the intersection between urbanization and economic development, but social, political, and cultural aspects of development in cities are considered. Other topics include the geographic impacts of European colonialism, urbanization and industrialization, rural-to-urban migration, urban structure and spatial dynamics, urban planning, and environmental sustainability. (Same as AAAS 557.) LEC
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An intermediate level course in geographic information science designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate level students who already have an introductory understanding of GIS. Emphasis will be placed on the application of spatial analytical techniques to geographical problem-solving. Topics include spatial data structures, interpolation techniques, terrain analysis, cost surfaces, and database management technique. Students will apply knowledge gained in lecture and reading to natural resource, urban, and scientific applications using state-of-the-art GIS software. Prerequisite: GEOG 358 or consent of instructor. LEC
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This course teaches programming within Geographic Information Systems. Students learn how to customize GIS applications to automate data processing and spatial analysis through programming languages. GIS programming concepts and methods are introduced from the aspects of spatial data management and analysis covering both the vector and raster data models. Prerequisite: GEOG 558 and a course in programming languages. LEC
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A survey of the culture and history of selected indigenous peoples of the Americas. Emphasis is placed on the environmental setting, the settlement and subsistence patterns, and the impact of European colonization. Discussion includes present-day ethnic and resource issues. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in cultural geography. May include specific course work under the headings of cultural theory and methodology, material culture, foodways, religion, and similar topics. May be repeated, if topic differs. LEC
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Acquaints students with the theories and methods of political geography. Topics include geographical studies of: states, nations, and nationalism; territories and territoriality; geopolitics; and elections. Case studies from various regions of the world are included with an emphasis on the developing world. Prerequisite: GEOG 102 or equivalent or consent of instructor. LEC
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Distributions of major culture elements including folk architecture, religion, dialect, foodways, and political behavior are systematically studied from a predominately historical perspective. These discussions are followed by a survey of the major culture regions in America. Although not absolutely necessary, familiarity with concepts treated in any of the following courses would be helpful: AMS 100, AMS 110, ANTH 108, ANTH 308, GEOG 102, or GEOG 390. (Same as AMS 576.) LEC
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An interdisciplinary approach to food that explores the diversity of eating habits across the United States and the role of food as in indicator of cultural identity and change. Current regional and ethnic food consumption patterns are stressed. Topics include multiculturalism and regional identity, the symbiotic relationship between restaurant food and home cooking, the recent interest in farmers' markets and organic foods, and the importance of the food industry and the popular press in setting trends. (Same as AMS 579.) LEC
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A study of the different physical, economic, and cultural settings in Latin America which form the basis for the various forms of livelihood. LEC
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This regional study of the natural environments and cultural-historical backgrounds of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean details the physical and historical processes that have shaped the cultural landscape. LEC
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This is a study of the natural and cultural history of the region's lands and peoples that focuses on the cultural geography of the surviving indigenous populations, including their culture area, culture history, cultural landscape, and cultural ecology. LEC
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An analysis of the spatial organization of the successor states to the USSR. A study of the diverse human and natural resources, demographic, cultural, and economic conditions. Prerequisite: An introductory geography course or background in Russian-East European history, social science, or culture, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of nations and regions of Eastern Europe, excluding Russia. Prerequisite: An introductory geography course or background in Slavic-East European history, social science, or culture or consent of instructor. LEC
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Study of geographic factors, physical and cultural, that are basic to understanding the historical development of Portuguese South America and the contemporary and cultural geography of Brazil. Course also includes a survey of Brazil's South American neighbors. LEC
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A survey of the varied responses of global Indigenous peoples as a result of the imposition of external economic and political systems. An overview of diverse, thematic issues such as land rights, economic development, resources and cultural patrimony, languages, knowledge systems, and women's rights from the perspectives of Indigenous societies around the world. Detailed studies of Indigenous peoples seeking recognition and protection under international law are used. (Same as ISP 601.) Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in geographic information science. May include specific coursework under the headings of methodology, basic research, thematic or regional applications, geographic information systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and geostatistics. May be repeated if topic differs. LEC
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Investigation of the interrelations between socio-cultural systems and the natural environment, including a survey of major theories and descriptive studies. (Same as ANTH 695.) Prerequisite: An introductory course in geography or anthropology. LEC
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Concepts and principles for the organization of verbal, numerical, and graphic/spatial data and their application to the production of information displays and instruments. Examination of the evolution of the information design process from the traditional (communication system) perspective to interactive user-centered design approaches. The nature of human information processing in handling information for both visualization and analysis, with particular emphasis on decision-making and usability. Prerequisite: GEOG 510, INDD 510, PSYC 318, PSYC 685, or equivalent, or consent of instructor. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in cartography. Can be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. LEC
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Experience in the organization and presentation of cartographic material in lecture, discussion, and laboratory formats. May be repeated to a total of six credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. FLD
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Working in a new environment presents problems unlike those encountered in a classroom situation. Data collection techniques and exercises discussed in this off-campus course are intended to provide experience in dealing with an unfamiliar situation. Course location is dictated by the interests and composition of the student group; offered in the first three weeks of August. Geography majors are encouraged to attend. This course is required for graduate students. Fee required. Prerequisite: Junior-senior standing and fifteen hours of geography or consent of instructor. FLD
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An introduction to the practical application of advanced geospatial statistical techniques. Potential topics include: spatial regression, interpolation, clustering, and advanced nonparametric statistics. Knowledge of a statistical package and GIS is assumed. Prerequisite: GEOG 516 or equivalent and GEOG 358 or equivalent. LEC
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Critical analysis of the growth of geographic thought from antiquity to the present: emphasis on structure of modern geography. Prerequisite: Twenty hours of geography or consent of instructor. LEC
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An overview of techniques for computer analysis of digital data from earth orbiting satellites for environmental applications. Topics covered include: data formats, image enhancements and analysis, classification, thematic mapping, and environmental change detection. The laboratory exercises provide hands-on experience in computer digital image processing in the department's NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Laboratory. Prerequisite: Introductory statistics and GEOG 526 or equivalent. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in physical geography. May include specific course work under the headings of geomorphology, climatology, soils, vegetation, quaternary, paleoenvironments, hydrology, etc. May be repeated. RSH
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This course provides graduate students with practical experience in field data collection techniques and laboratory data analysis methods. During the first half of the semester, students will work in the field using a variety of methods to measure such vegetation characteristics as: cover, density, biomass, leaf area, and canopy architecture. Students will gain experience in the use of field instruments including a spectroradiometer, and techniques for quantifying vegetation biophysical attributes. The laboratory analyses component will include: data summary, data entry, correlation, regression, MANOVA, cluster analysis, and data display, and reporting. Recommended: GEOG 516 or multivariate statistics equivalent. LEC
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Examines the interaction of pedogenic and geomorphic processes during the Quaternary with an emphasis on strategies and methodologies employed in soil-geomorphic studies. Group research projects incorporating field data collection and analyses are required. Prerequisite: GEOG 335 or GEOG 535 or consent of the instructor. LEC
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Detailed discussions of processes and landforms characteristic of specific environments. Considered during separate semesters will be general methodology, and fluvial, arid regions, glacial, and shoreline geomorphology. Course may be taken more than once. (Same as GEOL 741.) Prerequisite: GEOG 541. LEC
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Isotopic compositions of substances provide powerful insights into many topics in the natural sciences. Applications of isotopic analyses of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen to selected research topics such as plant resource use, food web analysis, paleoecology, paleodiet reconstruction, hydrology, and soils genesis will be examined. Knowledge of isotope chemistry is not required. (Concepts necessary to understand pertinent articles will be taught during the first class meetings.) May be repeated. (Same as BIOL 749.) LEC
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An analytical approach to spatial organization of economic activities and aspects of growth and development. Location theory and the geography of trade and migration. A research paper is required. Prerequisite: GEOG 551, or a course in economics, or consent of instructor. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in urban/economic geography. May include specific coursework under the headings of energy, economic development, international trade, environmental perception, housing, transportation, and migration. May be repeated. LEC
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This course investigates the economic, social, political, and environmental conditions of energy production, transport, and use: total energy consumption and mix, relations to the level and structure of the economy, substitutability of fuel and energy sources, resource endowment in an international setting. Prerequisite: GEOG 551 or a course in economics or consent of instructor. LEC
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This course integrates topics in geographical information science (GISci) with spatial analytical techniques to solve spatial problems. Focuses on the most current research in GISci and its relevance to the environmental sciences, natural resource management, and spatial decision-making. Students are expected to apply the concepts and techniques learned in this class to their own research projects. Prerequisite: GEOG 316 and GEOG 558, or consent of instructor. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in cultural geography. May include specific course methodology, material culture, foodways, religion, and similar topics. May be repeated. LEC
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Case studies of regional and national power settings with particular emphasis upon the geographical analysis of political developments in unstable areas of the world. Prerequisite: GEOG 102 or GEOG 375. LEC
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A discussion and project-oriented course focused on ways of studying the character and meaning of places. Concepts examined include place image and image makers, landscapes as text, sense of place, vernacular regions, and alternate representations of space. Prerequisite: Graduate standing or fifteen hours of geography or consent of instructor. LEC
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Evaluation of problem formulation data gathering, research methods, and substantive knowledge in the geography of human populations. Concurrent auditing of GEOG 575 plus an additional meeting each week is required. Prerequisite: GEOG 575 and GEOG 516, and SOC 514. LEC
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A detailed description and analysis of selected regions of North America. Prerequisite: An introductory geography course or background in United States or Canadian history, social science, or culture or consent of instructor. LEC
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A description and analysis of the principal sources of geographic information pertaining to portions or all of Latin America. Prerequisite: GEOG 591 or concurrent auditing of GEOG 591, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A description and analysis of geographic data pertaining to the successor states to the USSR. Prerequisite: Fifteen hours of Geography courses or background in Russian, East European or Middle East studies, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Prerequisite: Fifteen hours of geography, background in specified area, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Prerequisite: Fifteen hours in geography courses or background in Asia, or consent of instructor. LEC
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A survey of the varied responses of global Indigenous peoples as a result of the imposition of externally-dominated economic and political systems. An overview of diverse, thematic issues such as land rights, economic development, resources and cultural patrimony, languages, knowledge systems, and women's rights from the perspectives of Indigenous societies around the world. Detailed studies of Indigenous peoples seeking recognition and protection under international law will be used. The course is offered at the 600 and 800 levels, with additional assignments at the 800 level. (Same as ISP 801.) LEC
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An advanced survey of urban GIS/LIS focusing on: (1) history; (2) the wide range of applications from Automated Mapping/Facilities Management (AM/FM) to topologically related GIS; (3) generic analytical functions in both raster and vector modalities; and (4) software employed, hardware platforms, and institutional settings. A limited experience in the use of GIS is provided from exercises employing ARC/Info software. Prerequisite: Some experience with DOS based computing. LEC
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A course to familiarize students with the history and philosophy of geography as a science and humanity. The course summarizes, reviews, and explores the ongoing relevance of 2,500 years of theoretical and methodological advancements in human and physical geography. LEC
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The second of two courses required of M.A. students designed to provide experience in the development of research proposals and exposure to methodologies in geography. This course deals with approaches to geographic problems, and involves individual examination of special topics which require preparation, presentation, and critical evaluation of research proposals. LEC
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Advanced instruction in the theory and practice of producing maps and other related graphics for classroom instruction and research projects. Emphasis will be on current photo-mechanical and automated techniques. Prerequisite: By appointment. Consent of instructor. LEC
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This course is designed to give graduate students field experience in soil mapping and in the evaluation of soils for loss through processes of erosion. Prerequisite: GEOG 535 or equivalent or consent of instructor. FLD
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An introduction to the use of GIS for environmental inventory, monitoring, and modeling. This course integrates the principles of landscape ecology with the analytical tools of GIS, remote sensing, and spatial analysis. Students will be taught GIS methodologies used to address real world problems and the use of GIS spatial analysis techniques to characterize landscapes and monitor their change. Prerequisite: GEOG 316 and GEOG 558 or equivalents, multivariate analysis recommended. LEC
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Supervised professional experience. The student submits to the program committee a proposal describing the internship prior to enrollment. Upon acceptance, regularly scheduled meetings with the advisor provide assistance, guidance and evaluation of progress in the professional experience. A written summary of the experience or outcomes of the research project are prepared independently by the student, a representative of the host agency, and the advisor. Total credit not to exceed six hours. Prerequisite: Twelve hours of graduate level geography courses and consent of program committee. FLD
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Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. THE
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Study of selected topics in cartography. Can be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: GEOG 513 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Study of selected topics in remote sensing theory and application. May include independent or group research and/or development work. Topic will be specified in advance. Prerequisite: GEOG 726 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Subject matter varies but focuses on modern concepts and trends in soil geography. Sample topics include classification, paleopedology, and soil genesis. Field trip and fee may be required. Prerequisite: GEOG 735 or consent of instructor. LEC
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(Same as BIOL 968.) LEC
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Study of selected topics in theory and method of fluvial systems. Samples include hydraulic geometry, the nature of alluvial sediments, and basin case studies. Topic will be specified in advance. LEC
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Study of selected topics in analysis of digital geographic data. May include research and/or developmental work. Prerequisite: GEOG 758 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. LEC
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Study of selected topics in the theory and method of cultural geography. Samples include religious patterns, folk architecture, and place-defining novels. Topic will be specified in advance. LEC
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Study of selected topics in the theory and method of political geography. Samples include insurgent states, electoral patterns, and political ecology. Topic will be specified in advance. Prerequisite: GEOG 772 or consent of instructor. LEC
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Study of selected geographic topics and problems dealing with the distribution of human populations. Prerequisite: GEOG 775 or consent of instructor. LEC
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(Selected areas to be specified.) LEC
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Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. THE
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Introduction to the principles of earth science. Study of the formation, occurrence, and structure of minerals and rocks; action of streams, oceans, glaciers, and other agents in the formation and modification of the landscape; volcanism, earthquakes, and plate tectonics. This course with GEOL 103 satisfies the College laboratory science requirement. Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 103 is recommended for students taking both. Course may be offered in lecture or online format. LEC
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Honors section of GEOL 101. An introduction to the principles of earth science. Study of the formation, occurrence, and structures of minerals and rocks; action of streams, oceans, glaciers, and other agents in the formation and modification of the landscape; mountain building volcanism, and earthquakes. Not open to students who have taken GEOL 101. This course with GEOL 103 satisfies the College laboratory science requirement. Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 103 is recommended for students taking both. LEC
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A course in geologic laboratory studies. This course plus GEOL 101, GEOL 102, GEOL 105, or GEOL 106 satisfies the College laboratory science requirement. Gives students practical, hands-on experience with identifying earth materials (rocks, minerals, fossils), understanding their relationships to earth processes, understanding topographic and geologic maps, interpreting results of surficial processes, and learning about deep-earth processes such as earthquakes. Includes short field trips to see geologic structures and results of local geologic processes. This lab course may be offered in on-campus lab or online format. Prerequisite: Previous or concurrent enrollment in GEOL 101, GEOL 102, GEOL 105, or GEOL 106. LAB
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An introduction to the physical and biological history of the earth, the methods used to decipher earth history, and the development of the geological sciences. This course with GEOL 103 satisfies the College laboratory science requirement. Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 103 is recommended for students taking both. Not open to students who have taken GEOL 106 or GEOL 304. LEC
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Honors section of GEOL 105. An introduction to the physical and biological history of the earth, the methods used to decipher earth history, and the development of the geological sciences. This course with GEOL 103 satisfies the College laboratory science requirement. Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 103 is recommended for students taking both. Not open to students who have taken GEOL 105 or GEOL 304. LEC
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An introduction to the history of life and the origin and evolution of animals and plants during the earth's long history. The fossil record is interpreted by applying both biological and geological principles. LEC
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Addresses the subject of natural disasters with concentration on earthquake effects and their mitigation. Briefly treats volcanic eruptions, tidal waves, floods, global warming, severe weather, and catastrophic meteorite impacts from the perspective of geological and human significance. Provides a basic background into earth-science processes. LEC
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Basic description of oceanography: description and discussion of the ocean as a dynamic system. Relationships between and dependence upon the interactions of submarine topography, water chemistry, wave action, and biota in understanding the ocean system. Review of part that humanity plays in perturbing the natural oceanic environment. Discussions of estuarine problems as related to the sea, cultural activities, and rivers. Course may be offered in lecture or online format. Prerequisite: An introductory science course. LEC
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A summary of the measurement of time, the history of life, and the earth's development and the tectonics and rock-forming episodes of North America. Not open to students who have taken GEOL 105, GEOL 106 or GEOL 121. Prerequisite: GEOL 101. LEC
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Basic identification and properties of rocks and minerals in the context of whole-earth structure and evolution. Includes basic chemical equilibria for rock and mineral systems and their bearing on processes involved with formation and evolution of Earth's crust, mantle, and core. Two lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: GEOL 101, CHEM 125 or CHEM 184, and eligibility for MATH 121 or MATH 115. LEC
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A laboratory to accompany GEOL 311. Presents more rigorous analysis of the structures, compositions, and chemical equilibria governing the formation and stability of common rock-forming mineral systems. Prerequisite: GEOL 311 (may be taken concurrently), CHEM 125 or CHEM 184, and eligibility for MATH 121 or MATH 115. LAB
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The properties, occurrence, description, determination, and mineral affinities of gems, ornamental stones, and gem materials. LEC
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Physical, chemical, and biological processes in surface and near-surface environments applied to the recognition of the depositional environment, preservation, and alteration of sedimentary rocks. Field and laboratory study of sedimentary rocks with emphasis on interpretation of original depositional environments and alter processes affecting sedimentary rocks. Prerequisite: GEOL 101. LEC
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An introductory course dealing with the implications of geologic processes and materials for civilization. Topics to be considered include: geologic hazards such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, and volcanism; the availability of water, mineral, and energy resources; and the environmental impact of resource utilization. The importance of recognizing geologic constraints in land use planning and engineering projects is emphasized and illustrated by examples. LEC
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Summer session. A field-geology course that provides beginning geology students with an initial understanding of the nature of geological evidence in the field, the breadth of geological phenomena, and the importance of the interplay of information from many geological disciplines in solving problems. Given at various geologically diverse locations. Fee. Prerequisite: GEOL 101. LEC
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Special reports upon subjects in which students have a particular interest. Prerequisite: Fifteen hours of geology. IND
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Normally two to five hours in any one semester with a maximum of eight hours. An undergraduate research course, in any of the fields of geology, open by permission of the department to seniors in the College who have an average grade of B or higher in geology courses. Prerequisite: Thirty hours of geology, five of which may be taken concurrently with this course. IND
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The study of minerals, rocks and fluids within the earth's crust and mantle to elucidate their mechanisms of formation and the pressure-temperature-composition conditions within the earth. The course emphasizes equilibrium thermodynamics, phase equilibria, fractionation mechanisms, tectonic control of petrogenesis, and quantitative analysis of mineral parageneses. Prerequisite: GEOL 311 and first semester calculus, or permission of instructor. LEC
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A laboratory course to accompany GEOL 512. Material covered will include the use of the polarizing microscope in study of rocks in thin sections; identification of rock-forming minerals in thin section; study of textures as guides to the crystallization process; calculations of chemical changes during fractional crystallization and partial melting. Students will also make extensive study of igneous and metamorphic rocks in hand specimens, accompanied by thin section study, with emphasis on composition, texture, and structure. Students must co-enroll in GEOL 512. Prerequisite: GEOL 312. Concurrent enrollment in GEOL 512 required. LAB
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A study of the structure and evolution of ancient life; the nature and diversity of life through time; the interactions of ancient organisms with their environments and the information that the study of fossils provides about ancient environments; the use of fossils to determine the ages of rocks and the timing of past events in earth history; and the patterns of extinction through time. (Same as BIOL 622.) Prerequisite: BIOL 100 or BIOL 152 or GEOL 105 or GEOL 304. LEC
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Laboratory course in the study of fossils with emphasis on the practice of paleontology and the morphology of ancient organisms. (Same as BIOL 623.) LEC
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A lecture course in which fossil plants, protists and fungi are examined throughout geologic time. Emphasis will be directed at paleoecology, biogeography and the stratigraphic distribution and composition of ancient floras. (Same as BIOL 640.) Prerequisite: BIOL 413, or permission of instructor. LEC
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An examination of selected fossil plants throughout geological time and the techniques used to study them; laboratory will include identification and the use of plant fossils in biostratigraphy. (Same as BIOL 641.) Prerequisite: BIOL 413 or permission of instructor. Must be taken concurrently with GEOL 528. LAB
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A study of the principles of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Methods of analysis of stratiographic data focus on the interpretation of earth history. The stratiographic record of North America is presented for evaluation of its geologic history. Three lectures and one laboratory per week. Required field trip. Prerequisite: GEOL 101, GEOL 521, and GEOL 331. LEC
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