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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Liberal Arts & Sciences courses

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A summer course designed principally for secondary school language teachers. Discussion of current theory in language acquisition integrated into an intensive oral review of French. Meets three hours daily for two weeks; includes lab. (Not applicable toward a major or graduate degree in French.) LEC
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A summer course designed principally for secondary school language teachers. Provides an orientation to proficiency-based models in foreign language instruction, national standards in the rating of foreign language proficiency, and curriculum development sessions which address issues of articulation in foreign language curricula. (Not applicable toward a major or graduate degree in French.) (Same as GERM 681 and SPAN 681.) LEC
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Introduction to grammar and structure through the reading of representative works. LEC
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Major aspects of development and growth. Conducted in English. LEC
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Introduction to grammar and structure of the language through a reading of representative works from the Troubadour period. LEC
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Linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, and syntactic structure of modern French. Description in terms of current theories and models. Application of linguistic analyses to the teaching of French. LEC
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This course provides an overview of current and historical approaches to foreign language teaching, with reference to the instruction of French. Past and current trends and methodologies of language instruction are examined in order to acquaint students with various classroom approaches. Research findings in second language acquisition are explored and their implications discussed so as to show how these findings lead to more effective classroom practices. LEC
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An introduction to the skills required of students doing graduate degrees in French literature; areas covered are 1) introduction to literary theory and criticism, 2) bibliography and research methods, and 3) training in preparation of critical essays and theses. Required of all M.A. candidates unless specifically released by department. LEC
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A detailed introduction to versification, rhetoric, image and symbol as they apply to the study of poetry. Texts will be chosen from one or more periods of French literature and will include poems in verse and prose. Considerations and readings on the history of French poetry, on the composition of recueils, on poetic theory, and on the relation of poetry to other genres and media may be incorporated. LEC
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Selected movements , themes, genres, topics in the cultures and/or literatures of the French-speaking world outside France. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Literary history of the period, with discussion of representative works read for the most part in the original old French. LEC
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A survey of the major writers, covering Rabelais, Sceve, Louise Labe, Marguerite de Navarre, Ronsard, Du Bellay, Montaigne, and d'Aubigne. LEC
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Development of baroque and classical French drama, with emphasis on Corneille, Moliere, and Racine. LEC
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Esthetics of baroque and classicism. Emphasis on Descartes, Pascal, La Rochefoucauld, Mme de Lafayette, although other authors may be studied. LEC
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Special attention paid to Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau; also development of novel and drama. LEC
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Emphasis on major novelists of the century: Balzac, Stendhal, Flaubert, and Zola. LEC
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Major Romantic writers viewed in context of intellectual, esthetic, and social milieu of period 1800-1850. LEC
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Literary movements developing out of reaction to Romanticism: Realism, Naturalism, Parnassianism. LEC
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Major 20th century authors, stressing Proust, Gide, Giraudoux, Claudel, Sartre, and Camus. LEC
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Principal movements, structures, and tensions of A la recherche du temps perdu. LEC
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To meet Masters degree requirement for continual enrollment. This course will be graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory. FLD
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Study of topics not limited to one century. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Literary criticism from historical, theoretical, and practical point of view. LEC
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Selected topics to be specified. Study of form, movements, or themes in the French Novel, not limited to one century. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Selected topics to be specified. Study of form and theory of the French short story, not limited to one century. LEC
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Origins and development of Arthurian legend; analysis of major texts. Prerequisite: FREN 700. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: FREN 700. LEC
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Emphasis on Rabelais, Marguerite de Navarre, Marot, Maurice Sceve and Louise Labe. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Philosophical thought in 18th century as reflected in literature. Emphasis on philosophies, with discussion of external influences. LEC
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Origins and development to Revolution; thematic analysis with attention to critical attitudes and their influence upon evolution of novel as genre. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Works of major symbolist poets, including Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarme, and Valery. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Samuel Beckett to the nouveau roman. LEC
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Various movements, themes, or genres. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Topics in literary, linguistic, and cultural research. May be repeated for credit. LEC
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Readings and research projects in French language, literature, and culture. Directed work to fulfill needs not met by available courses. One-three hours credit in any semester. Maximum credit for M.A.: Three hours. By special departmental permission only. RSH
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An introductory survey of the environmental setting, historically formative periods, and present-day issues that distinguish the major culture areas of the world. LEC
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An introductory survey of the environmental setting, historically formative periods, and present-day issues that distinguish the major culture areas of the world. Open only to students in the College Honors Program, or by consent of instructor. LEC
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An examination of the relationships between humans and their environments. The course introduces students to basic concepts in human geography relating to economic activities, landscapes, languages, migrations, nations, regions, and religions. Serves as the basis for further course work in cultural, economic, political, population, and urban geography. LEC
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An introduction to how human societies organize space and modify the world about them. Resultant patterns on the landscape are interpreted through principles of space perception, cultural ecology, diffusion, land use, and location theory. Comparisons are made between urban and rural areas and between subsistence and commercial societies. Open to students who have been accepted into the College Honors Program. LEC
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The components of the physical environment are discussed in order to familiarize the student with their distributions and dynamic nature. Major topics include the atmosphere, landforms, soils, and vegetation together with their interrelationships and their relevance to human activity. This course and GEOG 105 together satisfy the laboratory science requirement. Both courses are required for geography majors. LEC
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A laboratory course designed to complement GEOG 104 in satisfying the laboratory science requirement. It is required for geography majors. Laboratory exercises include a wide variety of analyses using data on the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. Prerequisite: GEOG 104, which may be taken concurrently. LAB
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Interactive processes among the systems of the earth are studied and discussed. Major topics include vegetation, soils, landforms, water, the atmosphere, and cycles of matter between these portions of the earth. The course includes lectures and critical discussions to address study problems in physical geography. Open only to students in the University Honors Program or by consent of the instructor. LEC
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How do people find their way from here to there or just around? Simple--they use maps. Maybe not maps on pieces of paper but maps in their heads: mental maps. Different people have different maps, even of the same place. Mapping is an ancient form of communication and maps have created ideas and opinions, promoted understanding and confusion. A non-technical approach to the transformation of space onto maps, to their content and structure, and their role and impact in human activity, past and present. Neither background in geography nor artistic skills are required. LEC
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This interdisciplinary course and its laboratory (GEOG 141) survey the foundations of environmental understanding and the process of scientific discovery from perspectives that combine the principles and methodologies of the humanities, physical, life and social sciences. Key topics will include the history of environmental systems and life on earth, the discovery of biotic evolution, ecological change, and climate change. To be taken with GEOG 141. (Same as EVRN 140 and HIST 140.) LEC
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This laboratory applies the principles and methodologies of the humanities, physical, life and social sciences to earth systems and the development of environmental understanding using historical and present-day examples. To be taken with GEOG 140. (Same as EVRN 141 and HIST 141.) LAB
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This interdisciplinary course and its laboratory (GEOG 143) survey the history of humanity's relationship with the natural world over the long term from perspectives that combine the principles and methodologies of the humanities, physical, life and social sciences. Key topics will include the evolution of Homo sapiens and cultural systems; the development of hunter, gatherer, fisher, agricultural, and pastoral lifeways; the ecology of colonialism and industrial civilization, and the emergence of ideological and ethical perspectives on the relationship between nature and culture. To be taken with GEOG 143. (Same as EVRN 142 and HIST 142.) LEC
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This laboratory applies the principles and methodologies of the humanities, physical, life and social sciences to the humanity's engagement with the global environment using historical and present-day examples. To be taken with GEOG 142. (Same as EVRN 143 and HIST 143) LAB
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This course presents an overview of our understanding of environmental processes and issues. Topics include scientific principles, resource issues, pollution and global change, among others. This course gives students a rigorous understanding of interactions between humans and their environment and provides students with a scientific basis for making informed environmental decisions. (Same as EVRN 148.) LEC
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This course presents an overview of our understanding of environmental processes and issues. Topics include scientific principles, resource issues, pollution and global change, among others. This course gives students a rigorous understanding of interactions between humans and their environment and provides students with a scientific basis for making informed environmental decisions. An honors section of GEOG 148 designed for superior students. (Same as EVRN 149.) Prerequisite: Membership in the University Honors Program or approval of instructor required. LEC
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An introduction to geographic approaches to the study of the environment, emphasizing societal and cultural factors that influence human interaction with the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. The course involves analysis of a broad range of contemporary environmental issues from the local to global scales. (Same as EVRN 150.) LEC
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This course will introduce students to a number of different methods for the visualization, representation, and analysis of geographical phenomena. Both field and computer-based techniques will be employed to demonstrate the concept of experimental design and the collection, processing, and analysis of geographical data. Topics include: 1) the unique nature of geographic data; 2) mapping techniques and technologies; 3) geographical information systems; 4) remote sensing (aerial photography and satellite imagery); and 5) methods of geographical analysis (e.g., statistic and spatial modeling). LEC
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A survey of current methods of describing and modeling the function, structure, and productivity of natural and anthropogenically modified earth resource systems, along with a discussion of contemporary views of what constitutes a natural landscape. Fundamental natural science principles about the interplay among lithospheric, atmospheric, hydrospheric, and biospheric components of earth systems are emphasized. Uses of natural resources, including fossil fuels, minerals, and water are described with attention to the earth's total energy budget. Human activities that affect preservation, conservation, and multiple uses of earth regions receive attention. Systems under stress through population and other contemporary forces serve as examples. (Same as EVRN 304.) LEC
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An examination of the map process with emphasis on two areas: 1) the mental map formed during interaction with the environment and 2) the map as a physical object which emerges from mapping activity. A local area will serve as the laboratory/environment for the mapping activity including production and use. LEC
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Introduces the benefits and limitations of using quantitative methods to analyze geographical problems. Covers traditional descriptive (e.g., measures of central tendency) and inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing) but also inherently geographical approaches such as shape and point pattern analysis, and spatial autocorrelation. Laboratory emphasizes using the computer to explore and analyze geographical problems. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in Techniques. May include coursework in cartography, GIS, or remote sensing. May be repeated if topic differs. LEC
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This course is designed to introduce students to the nature of the Earth's physical climate. It introduces the basic scientific concepts underlying our understanding of our climate system. Particular emphasis is placed on energy and water balances and their roles in evaluating climate change. The course also evaluates the impact of climate on living organisms and the human environment. Finally, past climates are discussed and potential future climate change and its impact on humans is evaluated. (Same as ATMO 321.) Prerequisite: ATMO 105 or GEOG 104. LEC
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This course examines forces and processes affecting the earth's surface, and furthermore identifies and describes the physiographic regions that are the result of these processes. Special efforts are made to explore various photographic resources, satellite imagery, and internet sources or geomorphic data from a regional perspective since there is no wholly satisfactory text available for the course. A research paper is required. Prerequisite: An introductory earth science course or consent of instructor. LEC
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Elements from glaciology, geology, and climatology are merged to examine the interactions between glaciers and their natural environments, including the processes involved in glacier formation, the relationship between glaciers and climate, the mechanisms of glacier flow, and interpretation of the Earth's glacial record. Emphasis is placed on an interdisciplinary approach to study environmental change and paleoclimate reconstruction. Prerequisite: GEOG 104 or GEOL 101, or consent of instructor. LEC
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This course focuses on the properties and processes of soils as they occur in their environment. The student is introduced to the nature of soil as it functions as a body; genesis of soils; properties of soil solids, especially colloids; soil chemical composition, properties, and reactions; interaction between solid, liquid, and gaseous components in soils; plant-soil-water relationships; biological interactions with soil; classification of soils; and the distribution of soils on the landscape. Not open to students who have taken EVRN or GEOG 535. (Same as EVRN 335.) Prerequisite: GEOG 104 or GEOL 101 or consent of instructor; BIOL 100 and CHEM 184 or CHEM 185 recommended. LEC
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A course of fluvial geomorphology. Topics include the drainage basin, fluvial processes, river channel adjustment and forms, human disturbance and geomorphic response, and research methods in fluvial geomorphology. Field trip. Prerequisite: GEOG 104. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in Physical Geography. May include coursework under headings of soils, vegetation, climate, or geomorphology. May be repeated if topic differs. LEC
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This course is a survey of the basic physical features of the African continent including structure and relief, rivers and lakes, soils and mineral resources. It includes characteristics and processes of African climates, and the ecology of Africa's four major biomes: tropical rain forest, savanna, steppe, and desert. Climatic and environmental variations of the past, emergence of humankind, and development of pastoral and farming systems are discussed. Contemporary environmental concerns also include deforestation and desertification, the impacts of drought, methods for monitoring African environments, and Africa's prospects in a 21st century suffering from global warming. (Same as AAAS 350.) LEC
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An introduction to historical, cultural, social, political, and economic issues in Africa from a geographic perspective. The course begins with the historical geography of humanity in Africa, from ancient times through to the present. Other topics include cultural dynamics, demography, health, rural development, urbanization, gender issues, and political geography. Case studies from Eastern and Southern Africa will be used to illustrate major themes. (Same as AAAS 351.) LEC
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This course offers an overview of contemporary economic geography with an underlying theme of uneven regional development. Topics examined include: the historical context in which capitalism emerged; the major theoretical approaches used to understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of capitalist society; a series of case studies of different economic sectors; and the global economy, including its development with respect to colonialism, neocolonialism, international trade, third world development, and population growth. LEC
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An examination of the development of geographic information science (GISci) from its roots in traditional geography, cartography, and remote sensing to modern geographic information systems (GIS). GIS is explored as a new scientific instrument, a "macroscope" for representing and analyzing complex earth processes, both physical and cultural. The societal benefits and risks of GIS are demonstrated and discussed. LEC
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An introduction to computer-based analysis of spatial data. Covers basic principles of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatial data. Emphasis is on problem-solving activities using common spatial analytical techniques (e.g., map overlay). The student will gain extensive hands-on experience with state-of-the-art GIS software. LEC
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Charts some of the major lines of research in cultural geography, including critical theory, political economy, poststructuralist thought, feminism, and global consumption. Through fieldwork, diverse research methods are applied to issues such as community development, cultural patterns on the landscape and global impacts on local economies. Prerequisite: GEOG 100, GEOG 101, GEOG 102 or GEOG 103; or consent of instructor. LEC
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This course examines how human relationships with the biophysical world are politicized. Examines key contributions to debates surrounding environmental security, resource conflicts, and related issues, as well as geopolitical assumptions on which these debates build. (Same as EVRN 371.) LEC
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An examination of processes of cultural-economic interaction and patterns of human activity on a global scale. The topics cover the whole spectrum of human geography, with focus on urban-economic development, innovation and diffusion, and trade. Each week the third hour will be devoted to discussion of topics dealt with in lectures presented during the first two hours. Prerequisite: Introductory course in Geography or consent of the instructor. LEC
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This course explores the city from the multiple perspectives of its inhabitants. The cultural viewpoints of place, gender, age, and ethnicity are stressed. Traditional topics such as urban hierarchy, functions of the city, suburbanization, and ongoing changes in core and peripheral areas also receive attention. The distinctive landscapes of individual North American cities are emphasized, but examples also are drawn from throughout the world. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in Cultural Geography. May include coursework under headings of culture theory, material culture, language, foodways, or religion. May be repeated if topic differs. LEC
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A study of the different physical, economic, and cultural settings in the United States and Canada which form the basis for the various forms of livelihood. Emphasis on the United States. (Same as AMS 390.) Prerequisite: An introductory geography course or background in the United States or Canadian history, social science, or culture or consent of instructor. LEC
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This regional geography course examines contemporary environmental issues of a particular region of the world based on the expertise of the professor. Course emphasis is on the interaction of natural, socio-economic, and cultural factors of development that give rise to environmental problems. Students learn how local, national, and international government and non-governmental stakeholders address environmental problems. Course may be repeated with different professors. LEC
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An appreciation of how China and the Chinese way of life has evolved. Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Communism are examined as the bases of Chinese culture values. These values are then set against a highly varied physical and economic landscape to show how an elaborate and complex society has come into being. Contemporary developments are discussed only as a part of the entire spectrum of Chinese history. No prerequisite required. LEC
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A study of the different physical, economic, and cultural settings in Kansas and the Plains that form the basis for various kinds of livelihood. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in Regional Studies. May include coursework related to a specific country or region. May be repeated if topic differs. LEC
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Principles of evolution and earth change are used to examine distributions of human populations, wealth, and resources. Readings from the current literature will be included. Lecture and discussion. (Same as BIOL 410.) Prerequisite: BIOL 152 or 153 or GEOG 107 and membership in the University Honors Program or consent of instructor. LEC
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Theory and practice of map production and other related graphics using the latest graphic and GIS software. Projects vary but include the processes of design and production, editing and quality control, and a final printed or operational product. Involves a weekly consultation session and laboratory time in KU Cartographic & GIS Services. Prerequisite: Completion of GEOG 311 and consent of instructor. IND
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This course provides undergraduate students with practical experience in field data collection techniques and laboratory data analysis methods. During the first half of the semester, students work in the field using a variety of methods to measure such vegetation characteristics as: cover, density, biomass, leaf area, and canopy architecture. Students gain experience in the use of field instruments including a spectoradiometer, and techniques for quantifying biophysical attributes of vegetation. During the later part of the course, students learn to summarize their field data and examine relationships between the vegetation attributes and measurements made using remote sensing instruments. Recommended: GEOG 316 or an introductory statistics equivalent. (Same as EVRN 433.) FLD
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An introduction to the organization and components of geographic information systems and their software. Fundamental concepts and their implementation with applications to physical and human systems. LEC
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Supervised practical experience. The student submits a proposal describing the internship prior to enrollment. Upon acceptance, regularly scheduled meetings with the advisor provide assistance, guidance and evaluation of progress in the professional experience. A written summary of the experience or outcomes of the research project are prepared independently by the student, a representative of the host agency, and the advisor. Total credit not to exceed six hours. Prerequisite: Fifteen hours of geography and permission of instructor. FLD
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Prerequisite: Fifteen hours of geography. IND
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Open to students with nine hours of upper level credit in geography, an average of at least 3.5 in all geography courses, and an overall average of at least 3.25. Includes the preparation of an honors paper and its defense before a committee of at least two regular faculty members. IND
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The capstone project provides students with a broad-based, interdisciplinary educational experience and allows them to integrate and synthesize the knowledge they have gained in their studies. The course is designed to achieve several objectives: provide an overview of geography as a unified, coherent discipline with multiple perspectives, emphasize writing and analytical skills, introduce students to a major research project that integrates elements of physical and human geography, and cultivate knowledge of future professional development. Graduate students may take this course by permission only. Prerequisite: Nine hours in Geography and status as a senior major in the department; or permission of instructor. LEC
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An introduction to the concepts and theories underlying the study of human-technological systems. Human-machine interfaces and system properties and the environment are considered. Lecture-discussion sessions are supplemented by computer-supported laboratory and research activities. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in cartography. Can be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: A course in cartography and consent of instructor. LEC
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A study of graphic elements and their role in the physical and perceptual structure of the map image. Concepts and principles of design are stressed with particular emphasis on the figure-ground relationships, color and lettering. Prerequisite: GEOG 311. LEC
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Students use Visual Basic or other currently prominent programming language to visualize spatial data. Early projects cover basic principles such as color manipulation and spatial transformations. Later projects involve developing more sophisticated software for data presentation, data exploration, and map animation. Prerequisite: Some experience with Visual Basic or other programming language. LAB
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An introduction to the application of multivariate statistical analysis in geography. Techniques covered include univariate and multivariate analysis of variance, multiple regression, logistic regression, principle components analysis, and spatial regression. Practical applications of the techniques in a geographical research context are emphasized. Students will learn how to use statistical packages such as SPSS. Prerequisite: GEOG 316 or equivalent. LEC
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An analysis of methods for manipulating and symbolizing spatial data. Techniques studied include dot, choropleth, proportional symbols, and isarithmic (contour) mapping. Topics covered include data classification, the use of color, and automated methods of interpolation (triangulation, inverse distance, and kriging). Emphasis is on developing maps that can be presented to the general public, although some consideration is given to visualization software that can be utilized by individuals to explore spatial data. Prerequisite: GEOG 111 or GEOG 210 or GEOG 311. LEC
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A history of mapmaking worldwide from its origins to the present day. Emphasis on maps as historical records of evolving civilizations and cultural landscapes and methods of studying early maps. (Same as HIST 546.) LEC
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A study of climatic environments near the earth-atmosphere interface. Consideration of rural climates in relation to agriculture and urban climates as influenced by air pollution and other factors. Emphasis is on physical processes in the lower atmosphere, distribution of atmospheric variables, the surface energy budget, and water balance. (Same as ATMO 521.) Prerequisite: ATMO 105 and MATH 106 or MATH 121. LEC
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Introduction to study of the environment through air photos and satellite imagery, including principles of remote sensing, interactions of electromagnetic energy with the atmosphere and earth's surface, aerial photography, satellite systems, and sensors (electro-optical, thermal, and radar). Emphasis in the latter part of the course is on such applications as global monitoring, land cover mapping, forestry, agriculture, and oceanography. Laboratory emphasizes visual interpretation of aerial photography and satellite imagery and an introduction to digital image processing in the department's NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Laboratory. (Same as EVRN 526.) Prerequisite: MATH 101 or equivalent. GEOG 358 recommended. LEC
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An investigation of special topics in physical geography. May include specific course work under the headings of geomorphology, climatology, soils, vegetation, quaternary, paleoenvironments, hydrology, etc. May be repeated, if topic differs. LEC
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