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Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography

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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:

Humanities

  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography courses

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The basic principles of cardiovascular anatomy, with particular attention to the embryonic development. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. This course will provide students with an understanding of the general concepts and control mechanisms of the cardiovascular system. The first half of the semester will cover a general anatomical review of the cardiovascular system and peripheral vascular physiology. The second half of the semester will focus on cardiac physiology as well as the coordination between various aspects of the cardiovascular system. The course will introduce the student to echocardiographic evaluation of cardiovascular physiology and evaluation using other diagnostic modalities when applicable. LEC
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The basic principles of electrocardiography, with particular attention to basic normal and abnormal pattern recognition. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. This course is designed to present basic principles of ECG and the fundamentals of the ECG waveform. The student will be introduced to normal basic pattern and common abnormality recognition. LEC
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Basic principles of Doppler echocardiography, with particular attention to the practical application of same to the normal echo exam. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. This course is designed to introduce the student to the fundamental physical principles of ultrasound imaging and Doppler echocardiography and their application to the echocardiographic examination. The course will introduce the student to the basic physics of Doppler ultrasound. The student will also be introduced to the fundamental principles of pulsed-wave, continuous-wave and color-flow Doppler and their application to diagnostic cardiac sonography. In addition, the student will be introduced to the objectives of the routine Doppler examination along with a definition of the normal Doppler exam. LEC
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Provide the student with the basic care skill necessary to function in the hospital and clinical setting. Prerequisite: Admission to the Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. This course will provide the student with an introduction to the profession and the role of the cardiac sonographer. Patient care skills will be reviewed including patient transfer, proper ergonomics of scanning, measurement of vital signs, hand hygiene, sterile technique, infection control, orientation to the hospital and clinical environment and effective communication skills. LEC
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Provide the student with the basic hands-on experience to perform a two-dimensional echocardiogram. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. The purpose of the clinical education of the program is to provide meaningful, well-balanced sonographic experiences for the sonographers in training. The clinical competency evaluation system is a method of evaluating the progress of the student's ability to perform two-dimensional echocardiograms. This method is designed to provide the student with an opportunity to progress at a rate consistent with his/her ability and knowledge. Clinical Practicum I will focus on the development of image recognition, anatomy identification and acquisition of two-dimensional imaging, measuring two-dimensional and m-mode of chamber size, method-of-disk measurement of left ventricle for calculation of ejection. PRA
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The basic principles of cardiovascular physiology, with particular attention to the control mechanisms of the cardiovascular system. This course is designed to review cardiovascular anatomy. The course will include basic medical and cardiovascular terminology, embryologic development, congenital heart defects, and normal adult cardiovascular anatomy, including the great veins, arteries, coronary vessels and the conduction system. Normal cardiac anatomy in relation to the echocardiographic exam will be discussed. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. LEC
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Advanced principles of Doppler echocardiography, with particular attention to the practical application of same to the echo lab. Prerequisite: CSON 052. This course is designed to enable the student to apply Doppler physics and instrumentation principles to the actual Doppler echocardiography examination. The student will learn how to derive hemodynamic data from the pulsed-wave, continuous wave and color-flow Doppler examinations. The student will learn to effectively acquire accurate Doppler measurements and apply those data to the appropriate parameters and equations that are routinely used in the echo lab. Special emphasis will be given to understanding the physical principles governing the ultrasound machine and applying those principles in practice. LEC
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This course is designed to enable the student to understand the pathophysiology of acquired valvular heart disease. The etiology, physiology, cardiac auscultation, physical examination and symptoms and electrocardiographic findings associated with the various disease states will be covered. Two-dimensional and spectral and color flow Doppler findings associated with each valvular disease state will be evaluated. The student will learn to obtain and effectively apply accurate two-dimensional and Doppler measurements as they relate to evaluation and quantification of valvular disease. Prerequisite: Admission to the Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program LEC
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Provides the student with the basic hands-on experience to perform a spectral-Doppler and color-Doppler echocardiographic exam. The purpose of the clinical education of the program is designed to provide meaningful, well-balanced sonographic experiences for the sonographers in training. The experience is structured. The clinical competency evaluation system is a method of evaluating the echocardiograms and performance of students. This method is designed to provide the student with an opportunity to progress at a rate consistent with his/her ability and knowledge. Clinical Practicum II will focus on the development skills in spectral and color flow Doppler I imaging. The following Doppler assessment skills will be developed in the clinical setting: pulse and continuous-wave and color flow Doppler. The student will be expected to continue enhancement and proficiency in two-dimensional and m-mode imaging developed in Clinical Practicum I. Prerequisite: CSON 054. PRA
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This course is designed to enable the student to understand the pathophysiology and echocardiographic findings associated with cardiomyopathies and systolic and diastolic assessment of the heart. The etiology, physiology, cardiac auscultation, physical examination and symptoms and EKG findings associated with the various disease states will be covered. The role of two-dimensional, m-mode and color flow and spectral Doppler in the evaluation of the various disease states will be evaluated. The student will learn to obtain and effectively apply accurate two-dimensional and Doppler measurements as they relate to evaluation and quantification of systolic and diastolic function and echocardiographic role of evaluation of diseases of the myocardium. Prerequisite: CSON 062. LEC
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The basic physical principles of diagnostic ultrasound, with particular attention to mathematics, waves, attenuation, Doppler ultrasound and ultrasound instrumentation. This is the first of two ultrasound physics courses designed to prepare the student for Sonography Principles and Instrumentation exam he or she will be required to take to become registered with ARDMS. The content of this course will cover mathematics, sound waves, attenuation, pulsed-wave operation, transducers, systems operations, Doppler, artifacts, bioeffects, contrast, harmonics and quality assurance. The focus of the course will be to help the student understand the physical principles that the ultrasound machine utilizes to create the ultrasound image and help the student appreciate both the capabilities and limitations of imaging with ultrasound. The student will be introduced to the physical principles of pulsed-wave Doppler, continuous-wave Doppler and color-flow Doppler and the application of these modalities to diagnostic ultrasound. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. LEC
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Provides the student with skills necessary to perform an echocardiogram and accurately assess valvular heart disease. This course is designed to allow the student to advance the skills learned in Clinical Practicum I and II in the clinical environment. The focus of this course will be on valvular heart disease, prosthetic valve surveillance, sonographic evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, and transesophageal echocardiographic procedures. The clinical instructors will formally evaluate the competency in each of the required skills. Prerequisite: CSON 063. PRA
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The basic principles of ancillary cardiovascular testing and interventional procedures, with particular attention to the relationships and applicability of same to cardiovascular ultrasound. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography program. This course is designed to provide the student with the skills necessary to interpret a clinical cardiology assessment and to familiarize the student with the special procedures utilized in the echocardiography laboratory. The student will be introduced to basic cardiac pharmacology and to basic cardiac laboratory values. A specific goal of this course is to give the student the skills necessary to obtain a cardiac patient history. A detailed description of a transesophageal echocardiogram will be covered. The role of contrast in evaluation of the heart will be discussed along with the clinical utility and technique of administering contrast. Ultrasound machine functions and control optimization will be presented. Contrast echocardiography will be introduced. The pacemaker optimization procedure will be explained. Nuclear medicine stress testing, dobutamine echocardiography and bicycle stress testing will be discussed. The student will be introduced to strain and strain rate imaging and strain rate imaging along with 3D echocardiography. LEC
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The basic principles physical principles of diagnostic ultrasound, with particular attention to acquiring the necessary skills to successfully complete the Sonography Principles and Instrumentation exam to become registered with the ARDMS. Prerequisite: CSON 071. This is the second of two ultrasound physics courses designed to prepare the student for Sonography Principles and Instrumentation exam he or she will be required to take to become registered with ARDMS. The content of this course will cover fluid dynamics, hemodynamics, vascular principles and cardiovascular principles. In addition, the content of the Physics I course will be reviewed in preparation for the registry exams. In doing so, special emphasis will be place on the topics of Doppler, pulsed-wave operation, transducers, system operation, bioeffects, contrast, harmonics and quality assurance, again in preparation for the registry exams. Special emphasis will also be placed on helping the student understand the physical principle behind the ultrasound machine controls and and how to use the controls optimally. LEC
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At the completion of this course the student will have the necessary knowledge to perform a complete echocardiographic assessment using the appropriate two-dimensional, m-mode, spectral and color flow Doppler information. The student will learn about the following disease states and their relationship to a cardiac evaluation: cardiac diseases secondary to systemic illness, connective tissue disorders, neurological diseases, endocrine, hematological disorders, pericardial disease, cardiac tumors and masses and disease of the great vessels. Prerequisite: CSON 070. LEC
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Provides the students with skills necessary to perform stress echocardiography, TEE and contrast echocardiography. The students will continue to build on the two-dimensional, m-mode, spectral and color-flow Doppler assessment skills learned in the previous clinical experience. The students will develop the skills necessary to perform stress echocardiography including patient preparation, acquisition of baseline 2D images, monitoring during stress testing and post-exercise image acquisition selection. The student will demonstrate the ability to evaluate the presence and severity of a pericardial effusion, differentiate between constrictive and restrictive physiology, and review shunt calculations and valvular heart disease and how to quantitate. The role of the sonographer in the performance of TEE and the use of contrast echo in the clinical setting will also be introduced in this clinical practicum. Prerequisite: CSON 063. PRA
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The basic principles of entering the ultrasound profession and review for board certification examinations. This course is designed to prepare the sonographer in training to evaluate and prepare for echocardiographic career opportunities in the following ways: (1) How to research the various types of career opportunities available to entry-level sonographers. (2) How to complete a resume and prepare for the interviewing process. (3) How to access the array of professional organizations and periodicals that will help maintain continuing education credits. (4) Summarize the disease states covered throughout the Adult Echo Series. The course will include a review of the adult echocardiography sections of certification examination. Prerequisites: CSON 082. LEC
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The basic principles congenital heart disease, with particular attention to the echocardiographic evaluation of the adult patient with surgically repaired congenital heart disease. This course will provide students with an overview of congenital heart disease. Normal embryologic development will be reviewed, followed by an introduction to the evaluation of congenital heart disease using the segmental approach. There will be detailed discussion of various congenital heart anomalies. These will be grouped according to the regions of the heart and associated blood vessels that are affected. In addition, echocardiographic evaluation of these congenital heart defects will be presented. There will be a special emphasis on the echocardiographic evaluation of congenital heart defect repair in the adult patient. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. LEC
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The basic principles writing research papers and oral presentation, with particular attention to research techniques in collaboration with fellows and physicians. This course requires the sonographer in training to research an echocardiographic topic, write a paper about the topic and present the topic at noon conference in front of his peers, staff sonographers, nursing personnel, cardiology fellows and the medical staff. The student may include the natural history of the disease process, the historical approach to the diagnosis of the disease, an overview of the other modalities used in diagnosing the disease, the echocardiographic technique used in its diagnosis, and the scientific rationale behind the technique. In addition, the sonographer in training may include case studies in the presentation. The sonographer in training will be teamed with a cardiology fellow who will serve as both a mentor and a resource during the development of this presentation. Prerequisite: Admission to Diagnostic Cardiac Sonography Program. LEC
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Provides the student with the opportunity to function as a semi-independent sonographer while working under the strict supervision of a registered sonographer and interpreting physician. The students will focus on obtaining high quality ultrasound images of the heart and related structures during this course. The course will focus on developing sufficient skills in the performance of the technique to produce complete anatomical and functional information for the physician to interpret on a semi-independent basis. The student will be allowed to scan in a semi-independent manner after competencies in valvular heart disease, regurgitation and stenotic lesions, myocardial disease, stress echocardiography (resting) have been completed in clinical practicum IV. TEE and observation of contrast echocardiography will continue to be completed with a clinical instructor. Semi-independent status is defined as ratio of 1 clinical instructor to 2 students. Prerequisite: CSON 083. PRA
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