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Principal Course Distribution Requirement

Principal courses offer introductions to the breadth of disciplines in the College. They acquaint students with the subject matter in an area, with the types of questions that are asked about that subject matter, with the knowledge that has been developed and is now basic to the area, and with the methods and standards by which claims to truth are judged.

Students must complete courses in topical groups in three major divisions (humanities, natural sciences and mathematics, and social sciences). For the B.A., three courses are required from each division, with no more than one course from any topical group. The B.G.S. requires two courses from each division, with no more than one from any topical group. To fulfill the requirement, a course must be designated as a principal course according to the codes listed below.

These are the major divisions, their topical subgroups, and the codes that identify them:


  • HT: Historical studies
  • HL: Literature and the arts
  • HR: Philosophy and religion

Natural Sciences and Mathematics

  • NB: Biological sciences
  • NE: Earth sciences
  • NM: Mathematical sciences
  • NP: Physical science

Social Sciences

  • SC: Culture and society
  • SI: Individual behavior
  • SF: Public affairs

No course may fulfill both a principal course distribution requirement and a non-Western culture or second-level mathematics course requirement. Laboratory science courses designated as principal courses may fulfill both the laboratory science requirement and one of the distribution requirements. No free-standing laboratory course may by itself fulfill either the laboratory science requirement or a principal course requirement. Students should begin taking principal courses early in their academic careers. An honors equivalent of a principal course may fulfill a principal course requirement.

View all approved principal course distribution courses »

Non-Western Culture Requirement

A non-Western culture course acquaints students with the culture, society, and values of a non-Western people, for example, from Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, or Africa. Students must complete one approved non-Western culture course.

One approved non-Western culture course is required. Occasionally courses with varying topics fulfill the non-Western culture course requirement. See the Schedule of Classes for details. These courses are coded NW.

View all approved non-Western culture courses »

Transfer and Earned Credit Course Codes

These codes are used to evaluate transfer credit and to determine which academic requirements a course meets.

  • H: Humanities
  • N: Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • S: Social Sciences
  • W: World Civilization and Culture
  • U: Undesignated Elective Credit (course does not satisfy distribution requirement)

All Cytotechnology courses

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Orientation to the profession of cytotechnology including basic cell biology, ethics, the microscope, history of the profession. Also basic concepts of pathology are introduced including normal, benign proliferative, inflammatory, and reparative processes. The cellular alterations caused by these processes are introduced using the female genital system. The histology, anatomy, and endocrine system of the female genital tract are also covered. Microscopy of this section includes proper use and care of the microscope, hormonal cytology, and the range of normal reparative reactions. The recognition of specific infectious agents and/or their cellular manifestations is also included using the female genital tract as the body system under investigations. Prerequisite: Admissions to the Cytotechnology Program or permission of instructor. LEC
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The pathologic concepts of neoplasia, the morphogenesis of carcinoma, and the cellular changes associated with both premalignant and malignant changes of squamous cell lesions in the cervix are studied. Microscopy in this section includes pre-screening of clinical care load identifying normal and abnormal cellular criteria. Prerequisite: CYTO 300 or instructor's permission. LEC
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A continuation of CYTO 321 with the emphasis on lesions of the uterine corpus, metastatic lesions, and lesions of the vulva and vagina. Also treatment effect and pregnancy change are included in this section. Practical microscopy is also continued with the pre-screening of clinical cases. Prerequisite: CYTO 321 or instructor's permission. LEC
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Cytology lab regulations and QC requirements. Management requirements regarding safety, quality improvement, and personnel. Also, the normal, benign, and malignant changes of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the oral cavity. The anatomy, histology, and cytology of each of the body sites is studied as well as infectious agents common to these sites. Microscopy includes prescreening gynecologic material while further increasing speed and accuracy. Respiratory and oral specimens are also included in the practical microscopy. Students rotate through the processing laboratory. Prerequisite: CYTO 322 or permission of the instructor. LEC
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This course includes the cytology of the reticulo-endothelial system, effusions, CSF, and other miscellaneous fluids. Normal, benign, and malignant cellular criteria are covered as well as the anatomy and histology of each body site. Microscopy includes further practice in gyn material and all non-gyn specimens studied to this point. Students continue to use the processing laboratory on a rotating basis. Prerequisite: CYTO 355 or instructor's permission. LEC
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This course includes the cytology of the GI system, the breast, the urinary tract, and other miscellaneous body sites. The anatomy and histology of each of the body sites is studied; cellular criteria for benign, normal, and malignant changes are introduced. Advanced topics such as aspiration cytology will also be covered. Microscopy includes further practice in the pre-screening of gyn material as well as all non-gyn material studied to this point. Students continue to use the processing laboratory on a rotating basis. Prerequisite: CYTO 370 or instructor's permission. LEC
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This course will focus on the scientific method and research tools as used in recent journal articles. Discussion will specifically focus on critical evaluation of the conclusions presented and the evidence used to support those conclusions. Also, data retrieval will be practiced as the students research and write a paper on a cytology related topic. Prerequisite: CYTO 380 or instructor's permission. LEC
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Microscopy includes further practice in the screening of all gyn and non-gyn material at professional entry levels of speed and accuracy. Students continue to use the processing laboratory on a rotating basis and participate in case conference. Prerequisite: CYTO 380 or instructor's permission. LEC
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This course will include lectures on advanced topics in cytology. A comprehensive final examination completes the course. Students continue to increase speed and accuracy in microscopy to at least professional entry levels. Prerequisite: CYTO 420 or instructor's permission. LEC
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A laboratory classroom experience and recitation providing hands-on practice of basic laboratory skills. Laboratory exercises will provide practice with: introduction to pipetting and calibration of pipettes; principles of spectrophotometry; standard curve preparation; basic quality control; laboratory safety. Prerequisite: Admission to the Cytotechnology program or consent of the instructor. LAB
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